The human body does not know how to produce calcium independently. At the same time, it is needed to us not only for the health of bones and teeth, but also for a variety of other tasks. Unbalanced nutrition can lead to a lack of calcium pretty quickly. What is it dangerous and how is the most efficiently to receive a daily rate of calcium?
The daily need of a person in calcium depends on age, gender and lifestyle:
- A child up to a year is about 400-600 mg of calcium daily;
- aged 1 to 7 years old, the need for calcium gradually increases - from 700 to 900 mg per day;
- In adolescence, a person requires about 1100-1200 mg;
- in adulthood (from 20 years), this rule is slightly reduced - about 1000 mg;
- Starting from 40 years, the need for calcium increases to 1200-1300 mg per day
- And after 60 years can reach 1500 mg.
In particularly large doses of calcium need Pregnant and nursing women - It is necessary to get about the day 1500 mg This valuable macroelement.
The role of calcium in the body
Calcium is distributed in our body unevenly - about 99% are contained in bones and teeth and only 1% falls on other organs and tissues. However, the required amount of calcium is present in each cell of the human body. Calcium from the body is excreted through the kidneys and intestines (with the active participation of bile acids).
Calcium provides the supporting function of the bones, and at the same time, the bone tissue serves as a sort of "depot" calcium in the body. This means that with a lack of calcium in food, the body will begin to pull it out of bone tissue (which often leads to osteoporosis and other diseases).
Calcium has high biological activity and performs many very important features in our body:
- Provides equilibrium between the processes of excitation and braking in the cerebral cortex;
- regulates the processes of relaxation and cutting muscles;
- participates in the formation of bone tissue;
- important for teeth mineralization;
- regulates the permeability of cell membranes;
- affects the right heart rhythm;
- affects blood clotting;
- reduces blood cholesterol levels;
- important to generate many hormones and enzymes;
- helps the work of immunity, reduces allergic reactions;
- Helps the formation of durable collagen connections.
How to understand that you lack calcium?
There is no one unequivocal, indisputable sign of calcium shortage. The most reasonable thing to just come to the doctor, pass the analysis for calcium content in the body and continue to act in accordance with the recommendations of the doctor.
However, some signs may indicate that the lack of calcium in humans is most likely:
- general weakness and increased fatigue;
- emotional instability, mood swings;
- Pain and cramps in muscles;
- The appearance of frequent allergic reactions (especially if so far you have not suffered from them);
- pains in bones and joints;
- deterioration of the state of teeth, hair and nails.
What will be with calcium deficiency?
As we have already mentioned, if the body lacks calcium coming from food, it "breaks the piggy bank" - that is, it begins to remove calcium from the bones to use it for the most important daily processes.
The most insidious thing is impossible to notice this, but the consequences of such compensation can be deplorable - demineralization of bones and teeth up to destruction in extreme cases, osteoporosis, deterioration of nerve and cardiovascular systems, frequent allergic reactions, increase sensitivity of dental enamel.
Especially active calcium begins to withdraw from bones after 35-40 years, and by 65-70 people may lose up to 30% calcium in bone tissue.
On children's health, calcium lack can affect even more seriously: The lack of the most important macroelement leads to a violation of exchange and hormonal processes, the incorrect formation of bones and teeth, problems with posture, emotional instability and sleep disorders .
That is why it is so important to control the amount of calcium in the blood and, if necessary, to replenish it, adjusting nutrition or taking bioactive additives.
Too good - not good too
The right balance of substances is always important for health. Therefore, even such an important natural element, like calcium, may harm if it goes into the body in excessive quantities.
The risk earn an excess calcium (hypercalcemia) appears if we use more than 2.5 mg of this element per day. Again, the most accurate of everything will tell medical analysis.
Symptoms for which excess calcium can be suspected:
- decline in appetite;
- Frequent thirst;
- high blood pressure;
- nausea and vomiting;
- frequent urination;
- convulsions (especially at night);
- pain at the bottom of the abdomen;
- The confusion of consciousness and hallucination (with a strong overdose).
Excess calcium can cause the following health problems:
- oppression of the tone of skeletal muscles;
- oppression of the tone of smooth muscles (including vessels);
- increase in the acidity of gastric juice;
- deposition of calcium surplus in organs and tissues (including on the walls of vessels, in subcutaneous tissue, connective tissue of the heart);
- Increasing the risk of rock formation in the kidneys and the bustling bubble.
Interestingly, hypercalcemia is very difficult to get, simply by using many products rich in calcium. As a rule, the cause of excess calcium becomes violations of exchange or hormonal processes, as well as an overdose of bioactive additives.
If a person has discovered an excess of calcium, first of all it is necessary to cancel its entry from artificial sources (BD, drugs). At the same time, the doctor may assign drugs and procedures to help bring out calcium surplus from the body.
Where to take calcium?
Calcium is a widespread element in nature, they are rich in both animals and vegetable products. Most calcium is contained in solid cheese varieties and in crude sesame.
The bulk of calcium is in the shells of sesame seeds, while in the grains of this element quite a bit. Therefore, the white peeled sesame, which can most often find in stores, is almost useless as a source of calcium. If you want to eat sesame to replenish the amount of calcium in the body - look for crude seeds (usually they look much darker, and on the packages there are corresponding marks).
Milk and dairy products
A significant amount of calcium is contained. In dairy products: cream, cottage cheese, cheese, especially its low-fat varieties (parmesan), milk. At the same time, the best calcium is absorbed from ordinary pasteurized milk and fermented milk products.
Ultrapasterized or sterilized dairy products are already much less than vitamins and microelements, helping calcium well to worry: they are destroyed with intensive and long-term temperature trends. Therefore, it is important that cottage cheese is mild, not tough - this means that it is not subjected to excessive temperature effects and it is easier to digest.
Calcium from plant food
In smaller concentrations, compared with dairy products, calcium is present in garden greenery (parsley, spinach, celery, salad.), vegetables (beans, beans, broccoli, cauliflower, radishes), fish, nuts, fruits and berries (apricots, currants, grapes, oranges, pineapples, etc.) .
The assimilation of calcium from vegetable products also depends on the temperature conditions of preparation. For example, it identified that supporters of raw foods are less likely to suffer from osteoporosis, arthrosis, radiculitis and other problems with bones and joints, because they do not expose vegetables and fruits to heat treatment - and therefore more calcium is obtained.
The secret here is the same: with long heating in vegetables, fruits and greenery, many vitamins, minerals and compounds are destroyed, which affect the qualitative absorption of calcium. Conclusion is simple: Try to eat more raw vegetation food to obtain not only calcium, but also other necessary vitamins and minerals .
One of the best sources of calcium today is an egg shell with lemon juice. Moreover, in the shell of quail calcium eggs is much larger than in chicken shell.
In addition to calcium, the egg shell is rich in other minerals. It contains copper, fluorine, iron, manganese, molybdenum, phosphorus, sulfur, silicon, selenium, zinc, etc. - only 27 elements.
However, in the preparation of the shell at home there are its difficulties.
- It is best for these purposes to suit home or farm eggs, but it is not always easy to get them.
- Most of the calcium and other useful substances are contained in the crude shell, where there are quite a few pathogenic microorganisms. An obvious solution is to boil eggs or an empty shell, but then there will be less calcium in it and it will be worse.
- It is also worth considering that the preparation and grinding of the shell is a pretty mutoring process: To begin with, it must be released from the inner films (they interfere with the calcium to be used), and after grinding into powder, which will require a good coffee grinder.
Similar to the value of the product, but much more secure in terms of infections is the lithotan Lithothamnion - Red coral algae. It grows at a depth of 10-25 meters and is very rich in macro- and microelements necessary to man, especially by calcium. To obtain calcium powder, algae is cleaned, dried and crushed.
The lithotan is enriched with a new bar of the Yoo Go series from Siberian Wellness - Calcium Bar (Coconut). The extract of this useful limestone algae extracted from the coast of Iceland is part of the bars as an ingredient with the name Aquamin F.
The lithotania contains more than 74 macro and microelements, and in the same proportions as in the blood plasma. Of these, the maximum number falls on calcium, magnesium, chromium and iron. Being precisely in such a ratio, useful substances from algae are effectively absorbed in the intestine.
How many products are and what?
So how many and what products do you need to eat daily to provide the body with the desired amount of calcium? We give a few examples. So, 1200 mg calcium gives:
- 1000 g of milk
- 1000 g yogurt
- 1000 g kefira
- 200 g of solid cheese
- 500 g Ukropia
- 500 g of greenery parsley
- 1000 g of spinata
- 2200 g of green onions
- 1000 g of white beans (in the boiled form it is 3 kg)
- 1200 g of soya tofu cheese
- 1800 g of wheat bread from large grinding flour
- 1400 g sardin or oysters
Of course, combining these products, eat their right amount per day more or less real.
For example, the required amount of calcium can be assimilated as follows:
Now we calculate the calories that we get on such a diet!
- 100 g almonds - 645 kcal
- 300 g cabbage - 81 kcal
- 200 g of chicken meat - 226 kcal
- 200 g rice - 688 kcal
- 200 g of milk chocolate - 1088 kcal
- 200 g beans - 48 kcal
- 2 cups of kefir - 250 kcal Total: 3026 kcal!
For many, this is already busting, and how much I still want to eat in the day, in addition to the above-mentioned products! Yes, and it is impossible to dwell on calcium - after all, there are other necessary minerals and vitamins, which also need to receive from somewhere.
Of course, together with a nutritionist, you can create an individual diet, taking into account the age, activity, the state of health and the quality of products. But can everyone afford it and how much to follow the developed plan? Are you ready to pay so much attention to your feed regime?
A successful alternative to obtaining the required amount of calcium can be the reception of high-quality bioactive additives in which the calcium is presented in an easily accessible form. The Siberian Wellness assortment should pay attention to the "Email of Organic Calcium" complex.
How best to absorb calcium?
So that the calcium is well absorbed in the body, it is not enough so that he in itself was high-quality: you need other elements and vitamins that provide calcium good absorption. So, To assimage calcium, vitamins A, C, D and F, as well as iron, magnesium, manganese, phosphorus, silicon and iodine .
But this is not all: the level of human health is of great importance, and more specifically its digestive system. Some diseases of the gastrointestinal tract may interfere with the absorption of calcium and result in a protracted deficit of this element in the body.
Consider all the conditions in order.
Calcium and iodine
A particularly important role in the assimilation of calcium is played by iodine and vitamin D. It has been established that in an environment saturated with iodine, for example, on the coasts of the oceans and seas, cattle is distinguished by large sizes and a stronger skeleton, because the combination of calcium and iodine favorably affects the condition of the organism of animals.
Many iodine is contained in sea fish, seafood and algae. However, it is worth considering that heat treatment destroys trace elements and vitamins in these products, therefore it is better to use them low-voltage or cooked pair.
It is also worth very serious about the origin of a large sea fish (wondering where it is caught or grown) to avoid poisoning to toxins and heavy metals accumulated in it.
If the fish and seafood simply do not like to you in taste, a good solution will be bioactive food additives containing iodine.
Among the products of Siberian Wellness, we recommend the complex of the Essentials series "Sea Yode and Rhodiola", where iodine is contained in natural form - in the form of Fukus extract.
Calcium and phosphorus
The absorption of calcium affects its relationship with phosphorus: the improper proportion of these elements in the body may not be influenced by calcium sufficiency. The most favorable ratio is 1: 1.5 or 1: 2.
If the food in the body goes too much or, on the contrary, too little phosphorus compared to calcium, then calcium is absorbed bad. It is for this reason that nutritiologists are recommended to monitor the number of products rich in phosphorus (fish, meat), - they should not be in abundance or in deficiency.
With excessive use of meat products in the body, an excess of phosphorus occurs: it begins to accumulate and is not excreted from tissues and bones, which leads to a violation of the kidney, nervous system and bone tissues.
Simultaneously with these problems, the absorption of calcium is slowed down, the formation of vitamin D slows down, the functions of the parachitoid glands are disturbed. Stones can form in the kidneys, the threat of iron deficiency anemia and blood diseases appears. So we recommend lovers of meat and fish especially to closely monitor the number of daily servings.
Calcium and magnesium
Also, the negative effect on the absorption of calcium has an excess of magnesium in the diet or biodox. Products rich in magnesium are wheat bran, cereals, legumes, drinkers, prunes. Although it is quite difficult to get an excess of magnesium from ordinary products, it is worth remembering how to take calcium and magnesium correctly.
The optimal ratio of these elements is 1: 0.5. It is important to take into account those who decide to take magnesium in additives, because in this way it is quite easy to disrupt its ratio with calcium.
To calcium as much as possible in the body, The amount of protein in the daily diet must also be balanced . Insufficient or excess protein intake prevents calcium suction in full.
The optimal amount of protein per day is 1.2-1.6 g per person's weight kilograms - With such power, calcium is better preserved in the bones and effectively digested from food.
An equally important condition for calcium suction (and for health as a whole!) Is a good digestion - when the stomach and intestines work correctly, all important connections are absorbed easily.
The value here has everything: the acidity and amount of gastric juice, the pancreatic enzymes, bile acids, the state of the intestinal microflora.
By the way, to support the intestinal microflora will help the complex of probiotics "Elfifide" - in it useful bacteria Lactobacillus Acidophilus. Protected from the aggressive stomach environment and reaches the intestines completely viable.
If the mucosa of the small intestine does not receive the necessary vitamins and other compounds for a long time, its cells may be reborn and will not be able to assimilate calcium and other useful organisms of the substance.
You can help the mucous membrane of the small intestine, using food with a sufficient number of carotene (or taking the "trimeslegal. Natural beta-carotene and sea buckthorn").
- Follow the work of the kidneys - In the kidneys from vitamin D, its active form is formed - calcitriol, which ensures calcium suction in the small intestine.
- Monitor the work of the gastrointestinal tract, liver and small intestines - These organs are also responsible for the effective absorption of calcium.
What prevents the assimilation of calcium?
It will be useful to know about the factors that interfere with absorbing calcium from everyday food:
- The surplus in the diet of protein products (as we have already found out in the section about phosphorus) - meat, cheese, fish.
- The abuse of flour products and sweets.
- Excess fat - while calcium forms with fat so-called calcium soaps, which come out of the body without learning.
- Outproofing nuts - they are a source of phytic acid, which in large quantities the calcium is interfered with calcium.
- Iron intake along with calcium - if it comes to biodevices.
- Alcohol and smoking.
- Excessive use of coffee, carbonated drinks, cocoa.
- Excessive salt consumption.
- Lifeline lifestyle, daily long work at a computer.
- Stress and forced limitation of mobility.
- An unfavorable environmental situation: a high level of heavy metals in products and inhaled air. The fact is that the level of calcium in the blood may vary under the influence of heavy metals. It has been established that bivalent metals can replace calcium in some physiological processes, as well as use it to penetrate into the cell.
When atmospheric pressure decreases, the body requires more calcium to save equilibrium. If its reserves are not in the blood, then it is removed from the bones. When the process goes beyond the norm, the bone tissue begins to suffer. Therefore, the elderly people say: "Oh, how bones hurt! This is to bad weather ... "
Calcium in biodevices
Calcium in the form of bioactive additives today produce hundreds of companies. But it should be borne in mind that the Bad Calcium may be present in different forms, each of which has its advantages, and some have disadvantages.
This is a compound of carbonic acid salt and calcium. Calcium carbonate is the most common calcium form in nature. Main sources: limestone, mollusks, sea sponges, coral polyps, oyster sinks, egg shell.
This calcium form has a pronounced antacid effect, i.e., reduces the acidity of the gastric juice. And here it is worth understanding that this property is not good for everyone.
Calcium carbonate is recommended to take up to 45 years or people having increased acidity of gastric juice and associated diseases of the gastrointestinal tract.
With reduced acidity, it is meaningless, since it will not be effectively used.
In renal disease and tubulopathies, calcium carbonate should be taken with caution, best - under the control of the doctor. Also, do not combine reception with treatment with antibiotics.
The advantages of this form are that in the intestines, calcium carbonate is absorbed precisely in the amount that the body needs. It is especially important to use such calcium in the right relationship with other elements - this will ensure its maximum absorption from the additive.
By the way, calcium carbonate in the form of license extract (ingredient Aquamin F) is contained in our new bars of the Yoo Go Calcium-bar series (coconut). Microelements that accompany calcium in the lithotania helps him seek perfectly.
This is a chemical compound of calcium salts and citric acid, so it is also called lemon-acid calcium. To assimage this form, hydrochloric acid is not required, its absorption in the stomach does not depend on the level of acidity.
Unlike calcium carbonate, citrate and does not affect the acidity of the stomach, so This calcium form can with confidence choose people with a reduced and normal level of acidity. (for example, elderly).
Since calcium citrate is absorbed better than carbonate, it is worth especially carefully to observe dosages - if you abuse them, you can earn an excess of this element in the body. And what it can lead, we looked at higher.
In essence, these calcium ions connected to amino acids. Amino acids capture the mineral, as if clamshes, and make it ready for suction and transportation of intestinal cells - i.e., the maximum absorption occurs, without unnecessary transformations.
Today Chelate calcium (calcium bisglicinate) is considered the most well digestible form . Together with him, even it is not necessary to take vitamin D - so well he is absorbed himself.
Bisglicinat does not affect the level of intestinal acidity, does not settle on its walls, does not disturb its barrier functions. Chelata has no side effects in the form of rock formation or deposits on the walls of the vessels.
Chelany calcium can be recommended to everyone without exception - including pregnant and lactating women, children and adolescents, elderly people and athletes.
Although the cost of bisglicinate is usually higher, it is justified by high digestibility and lack of risks.
This is a special form of calcium, which also contains phosphorus in a 2: 1 ratio as well as other useful substances. This calcium form, as well as chelates, is optimal for assimilation.
Hydroxyapatitis is absorbed by the intestine at any acidity of the gastric juice, and its rejection by the kidneys is minimized. In the physico-chemical structure, it has maximum biocompatibility with bone tissue.
However, for a good absorption of hydroxyapatite, it is necessary that in ordinary food there was no excess of phosphorus. As a rule, under the usual diet, it turns out on the contrary: we also get enough phosphorus with the products, and its additional presence in hydroxyapatite violates the balance. As a result, calcium from the additive is sucked worse. In addition, the increased phosphorus content in food interferes with the form of active form of vitamin D.
Also to people who adhere to the vegan diet, it should be borne in mind that Hydroxyapatite - source of calcium animal origin Therefore, it is hardly suitable for them as a biodendage.
When calcium is particularly necessary?
To understand that you exactly need extra calcium in the form of a bioactive additive, best Consult a doctor and pass tests for the calcium content in the body .
We list the situations in which the need for an additional reception of calcium, as a rule, increases - and therefore consultation with a specialist is needed with a greater probability.
- Diseases of the gastrointestinal tract: decreased liver function, chronic pancreatitis, gastroenteritis, dysbacteriosis.
- Kidney disease and renal failure.
- Hydodina (low-live lifestyle).
- Pregnancy and breastfeeding period.
- Applying diuretic drugs.
- Taking hormonal drugs (especially glucocorticoids).
- Receive some antibiotics.
- Violation of the hormonal system.
- Diet with calorieness below 2000 kcal / day.
- Vegan diet.
- Age after 40 years.
- The period of active growth in children.
- Frequent fractures, especially the neck of the femoral bone.
- Frequent cases of allergic reactions.
- Osteoporosis, Rahit, other problems with the condition of bones.
- Long use of aluminum dishes.
Scientists found out that aluminum is able to be delayed in the human bone tissue, where it interferes with the regeneration of cartilage and bones. In our body, this metal falls with drinks and products that were packed in aluminum container or prepared in aluminum dishes. That is, most often it is canned, melted raw materials and similar goods, as well as ordinary home food. We strongly recommend refusing to use aluminum dishes and reduce the frequency of consumption of canned products to preserve health.
Get enough calcium today is not so difficult. The optimal option is to combine casual foods rich in calcium and vitamin D, with the reception of high-quality biodox. It is also important not to forget about balanced nutrition, healthy digestion, full sleep, sport, outdoor walks and a moving rest - with this lifestyle and calcium, and other substance necessary organisms will be used in the best possible way.
Material author: Elena Klin, doctor nutritionist nutritionist
How to choose a calcium drug? How much calcium does a person get with food and is it necessary to "get" mineral from calcium additives? What in addition to calcium should contain the drug? And how depends the digestibility of calcium from the source of the mineral? Let's try to figure it out.
The human body on average contains 1200 - 1500 grams of calcium. 99% of this quantity is in the bones and teeth, and 1% is in the blood.
In addition to the fact that calcium is a building material for bones, teeth and nails, it is necessary for blood coagulation processes, muscle cuts, nervous conductivity, etc.
The daily need for calcium is 800-1500 mg, depending on the age of a person, the diet, the state of the body, lifestyle. So children during the growth period it is necessary to obtain 1200 mg. Women in the period of menopause and during pregnancy should receive 1,500 mg. In nursing mothers, the need for calcium can be even more.
During the day, the body loses an average of about 800 mg of calcium. These losses we need to constantly fill. Moreover, the flow of calcium should exceed its loss. If the calcium is not enough in the body, he begins to take it "loan" by the bones.
The average diet provides calcium intake with food about 0.6 - 1 g per day. Rich sources of calcium are milk, cheese and yogurt, broccoli, sheet cabbage, mustard greens, turnips, fish products. However, in an adult, less than half of the calcium coming from food is absorbed.
Given the facts that calcium is perhaps the most capricious element in terms of suction and calcium deficiency is observed by almost every person, the question of the need for its additional admission is very acute.
What kind of calcium to choose?
Among the abundance of calcium-containing drugs, we offer "natural", "natural origin", "coral", "pearly", "in easily digestible form" and even "soluble". Although we all know that calcium in water does not dissolve!
So, let's try to figure out.
Calcium sources included in calcium preparations are divided into two classes: Calcium of natural origin and synthetic.
Calcium from natural sources
Get from limestone, dolomite, oyster, coral shells, animal bones. Almost all sources of calcium natural origin are calcium carbonate, which, despite the high calcium content in the salt - about 40%, is very poorly absorbed by the body. Moreover, the so-called "natural" calcium may contain hazardous impurities. After all, not all areas where shells and corals are encoly clean, and it is often difficult to understand where calcium is obtained and how purified it is.
Exploring sources of calcium of natural origin, scientists discovered in them the presence of lead, the amount of which often exceeded the maximum allowable level. Avoid such pollution is problematic in the conditions of our civilization. This is especially true of calcium from the shells of oysters and animal bones. The lead in living organisms accumulates just in places of calcium deposits: bones, sink, shell. Once upon a time in the body, the lead is withdrawable, damaging the kidneys, brain, blood cells. And in this case, the intellectual functions decrease in the children, behavior changes, there are unmotivated aggression.
Presents purified substances in the form of calcium salts and safety is preferable to "natural". However, there are nuances here.
At first , Calcium content in these salts Miscellaneous: Maximum - in carbonate, and minimal - in gluconate.
Secondly They will greatly differ in the biological effect and digestibility.
|Salts calcium||The content of elementary calcium (mg) in 1 gram of salt|
|Inorganic calcium salts|
|Organic calcium salts|
Calcium phosphate. Phosphorus is part of very many foods, therefore, in modern conditions, the human body has a phosphoric load in order to additionally take phosphates. Let and for the purpose of getting calcium.
Not "colors" calcium phosphate and its very low absorption. Therefore, its use as a substance to replenish the need for calcium is not recommended.
Calcium lactate and gluconate. There is one big claim to these salts: they contain little elementary calcium, respectively 13% and 9%. Therefore, it is necessary to take these connections in large quantities. Depending on the dosage - it is 5-10 large gram tablets of the children's "ascorbic".
Calcium chloride. This salt when taking inside irritates the stomach, causing pain and heartburn. It is used mainly in solutions.
Thus, on efficiency and safety, only two forms of calcium are actually opposed: calcium citrate and calcium carbonate. What we actually observe on the shelves of pharmacies.
Calcium carbonate. The most common and one of the cheapest calcium forms. In the world market, the proportion of drugs from carbonate takes about 85%. And although calcium carbonate is a leader in the content of elementary calcium - 400 mg, the absorption of calcium from this salt is directly dependent on the acidity of the gastric juice. The higher the acidity - the better the assimilation. With reduced acidity (characteristic of people over 45 years old), the absorption of calcium carbonate drops to 2-3%. That is practically not absorbed.
Moreover, with the absorption of calcium carbonate, the hydrochloric acid of the gastric juice is neutralized, necessary for digesting food, as well as by the barrier to the penetration of parasites. Often, calcium carbonate is accompanied by a gastrointestinal discomfort, a feeling of cutting and exhaust with carbon dioxide.
Citrate calcium. Calcium citrate is a safe and chemically pure product, which is obtained from purified substances during calcium carbonate reaction from purified limestone with citric acid. Despite the fact that the citrate contains only 21% calcium (calcium content in carbonate - 40%), from citrate to the body comes 2.5 times more elementary calcium than from carbonate.
At the same time, calcium from the citrate is absorbed regardless of the acidity of the gastric juice. And with reduced gastric secretion from the calcium citrate, 10 times more calcium comes from the Citrate than from the carbonate. Therefore, this calcium form is the most optimal for people over 45 years old.
Plus, the calcium citrate has significantly fewer side effects than carbonate. In addition, he contributes to the absorption of vitamin C and other minerals.
The biggest problem of the citrate is its price. Today, calcium citrate is a more expensive form than carbonate.
According to its biological properties, digestibility and safety, calcium citrate has significant advantages over carbonate and other calcium species.
Pay attention to the label of the drug where the amount of pure ("elementary") calcium is noted. If the salts content is indicated, remember: in calcium citrate, 1000 mg of the substance accounts for only 200 mg calcium, and in carbonate - by 1000 mg of the substance accounts for 400 mg of calcium.
Some manufacturers resort to tricks: add a slight amount of calcium citrate to calcium carbonate and then advertise its product as the most bioavailable.
When choosing a calcium preparation, pay attention to other components in its composition. Ideally, if the composition includes vitamins D3, K2, magnesium, zinc, manganese. Vitamin D3 improves calcium suction in the intestines and the assimilation of its bone tissue. Manganese and zinc are necessary for the development of the normal structure of bone and connective tissue. Vitamin K2 directs calcium into the bone, preventing its deposit in the vascular wall and stimulates the process of constructing bone tissue.
Comparing the cost of different calcium preparations, in addition to calcium in one tablet, consider the number of tablets in the package. Remember, the reception of calcium is the process "lifetime".
With normal or increased acidity of the gastric juice, you can use both carbonate and calcium citrate. Do not forget that with citrate, in addition to the calcium fill, you will get a lot of other advantages. With reduced gastric secretion, only citrate will help. Unfortunately, in this case, the carbonate is simply not learned.
I hope these simple tips and recommendations will help you make the right choice!
Insufficient body's security by calcium ions is a risk factor in a number of chronic pathologies, including disorders of the metabolism of bones, muscle functioning, endothelium, immune and cardiovascular systems. According to the World Health Organization, the calcium content in drinking water is one of the fundamental factors determining the health status of the human level at the population level .
However, drinking water in the overwhelming majority of geographic regions contains the amount of calcium, obviously insufficient to compensate for the daily need of the body (1000 mg / day for adults). In addition, the drinking water available to most people passes multiple cleaning cycles from organic impurities and toxic "heavy" metals - lead, mercury, cadmium. In the course of cleaning, the already low content of calcium is significantly reduced. For this reason, there is a need to saturate the drinking water necessary for the health of macro- and microelements, primarily calcium, using special preparations.
From a pharmacological point of view, the flow of calcium into the body in the form of an aqueous solution has a number of significant advantages. First, calcium is already in a dissolved state (in contrast, say, from the tablets of insoluble calcium carbonate). Secondly, there are no ligands in an aqueous solution that interfere with the absorption of calcium (for example, in food products there is a significant amount of phytic acid, which translates calcium ions to an insoluble and low-refrigerant form). Thirdly, the flow of water with calcium ions in the drug solution contributes to solving the problem of insufficient fluid consumption (an adult should drink at least 2-2.5 l / day of clean drinking water). Fourth, calcium aqueous solution can be enriched with special synergistic micronutrients that improve the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of calcium.
In this paper, the features of calcium drugs are discussed, which must be taken into account when applying them, so that the application is as efficient and safe as possible. The results of studies of the security of calcium of various populations, the peculiarities of the pharmacology of various calcium preparations and the intended purpose of soluble organic calcium preparations are consistent. These clinical and epidemiological studies and evidence-based medicine are given.
Security calcium of various populations
The calcium recommended in the Russian Federation (RSP) calcium is an average of 1000 mg / day for adults, for persons over 60 years old - 1200 mg / day. Physiological need for children - from 400 to 1200 mg / day . RSP in other countries lie in comparable intervals of values (Table, Fig. 1).
Clinical and epidemiological studies conducted in different countries show that the average daily consumption of calcium among various layers of the population is 500-1000 mg / day and rarely exceeds the PSP.
Thus, the existing clinical and epidemiological data show that calcium consumption is not enough. The normalization of calcium consumption can be carried out both by changing the composition of the diet consumed and using special calcium preparations.
Clinical Pharmacology Calcium preparations based on inorganic and organic salts
Compensation of calcium deficiency can be carried out both by changing the composition of the diet consumed and using special calcium preparations.
A significant problem for the most efficient and safe compensation for calcium dietary deficiency is the choice of a pharmacological substance (calcium salts) and a pharmaceutical form calcium (tablets, dragee, drinking solution). In this section, are prolego? Mena for a differentiated approach to the choice of safe and efficient calcium preparations.
The assimilation of calcium from drugs depends on factors such as 1) calcium substance, 2) dose of calcium, 3) the mode of reception, 4) of the pH of the gastric juice and, of course, 5) joint use with other drugs. In accordance with the substance, they allocate the inorganic (1 generation) and organic (2nd generation) calcium preparations. The overwhelming majority of calcium calcium preparations are represented by calcium carbonate, which is insoluble in water and requires a certain range of the acidity of the medium (pH) for absorption. Organic calcium preparations (2nd generation) are better dissolved in water, significantly less depend on the pH of the gastric juice and are characterized by higher bioavailability than tableted forms .
Inorganic calcium salts
Calcium carbonate is the most common one of the cheapest calcium forms, which is widely used in medicine as an antacid . Antacids act on the surface of the gastric mucosa, neutralizing gastric acid hydrochloric acid (HCl). When neutralizing hydrochloric acid, part of the calcium carbonate-based antacid is dissolved in accordance with the equation:
CaCo. 3+ 2hcl → CACL 2+ Co. 2↑ + H. 2O
The resulting calcium chloride is absorbed by epithelial cells of the stomach and enters blood. Most of the calcium carbonate remains undisturbed and moves with intestinal transit into a thick intestine. Therefore, the absorption of calcium carbonate is largely depends on the acidity of the stomach (better absorption is observed at lower pH ) - after all, calcium carbonate insoluble in water and its absorption in the body occurs solely by interacting with the HCl of the gastric juice. The significant absorption of calcium calcium from the calcium carbonate should be expected only in patients with increased acidity of the stomach.
Organic calcium salts
Calcium lactate is a characteristic component of mature cheeses. Calcium lactate can be assumed at different pH values, and this calcium form can be taken regardless of meals. Calcium lactate successfully dissolves insufficient effects of the effects of estrogen-containing drugs on the mineral density of bone tissue . However, receiving only calcium lactate drugs cannot provide complete satisfaction of calcium need.
Calcium gluconate is used as a topical agent or in the form of an injection solution [8, 9]. With a certain treatment method, calcium gluconate is able to physically stimulate the release of the active shape of the calcitonine molecule from parapollicular C-cells , is characterized by a distinct positive effect on the kidney function, showing vasodilatory and sodium-system properties . Also, calcium gluconate is an effective and safe oral form of calcium to increase the density of the bone mass in premature newborns .
Citrate calcium is exceptional in its efficiency and safety of calcium form. First, calcium citrate completely dissolves in water. Secondly, calcium from citrate is absorbed regardless of the meal or acidity of gastric juice. The chemical properties of the calcium citrate make it the preparation of the first choice in patients with reduced acidity of the gastric juice, as well as in elderly patients and patients using antacids and proton pump inhibitors. Thirdly, citrate anion in itself has itself physiological importance, being the main substrate of the central energy cycle of each cell - the Krebs cycle. Fourth, citrate anion helps to reduce the risk of rock formation in the kidneys and, moreover, contributes to the dissolution of kidney stones .
The results of a comparison of the solubility of several calcium calcium preparations and 2nd generations in a wide range of pH (from 1 to 7) showed that the tablets of 1-generation preparations based on calcium carbonate are disintegrated for 7-9 minutes and completely dissolve even even when Low pH values (i.e. high acidity) . On the contrary, the prepared drug 2nd generation (calcium carbonate in a mixture with citric acid and calcium lactagluconate) is completely dissolved for 2-3 minutes, forming a transparent solution of calcium citrate, not containing precipitate. The time of the total dissolution of the drug of the 2nd generation was also slightly increased with the growth of pH (i.e. the incidence of acidity), although not so pronounced (pH = 1.39 - 2 min 10 s, pH = 7.04 - 3 min, t. e. less than 1 min, p <0.002 (Fig. 2).
As noted above, an important factor in the assimilation of drugs based on calcium carbonate is the acidity of the gastric juice. The composition of the gastric juice includes hydrochloric acid (providing low pH value), pepsin gastric juice enzymes, gastroin, mucus, minerals (potassium chlorides, ammonium and sodium, sulfates, phosphates), etc. The essential difference of calcium carbonate preparations of 1st generation It is that they are practically completely (up to the values of pH = 7) neutralize hydrochloric acid when modeling the pH of the gastric juice. At the same time, the drug based on the calcium citrate forms a weakly acidic solution with a very stable value of pH = 4.52 ± 0.15 for any starting pH (i.e. it can be absorbed both at high and under normal and reduced stomach acidity). The drug of the 2nd generation based on calcium citrate formed a weakly acid solution with pH values lying in a very narrow range - pH = 4.52 ± 0.15 (Fig. 3) .
Calculations have shown that even at pH <2.0 to the solution, no more than 50% of calcium carbonate from the tablets of the 1st generation preparations is passed, and the solubility of the tablet drops sharply with the increase in pH (i.e., with a drop of gastric juice acidity). From the drug of the 2nd generation, all 100% calcium is transmitted to the solution, which contributes to a significant increase in calcium absorption in the body (Fig. 4) .
On the target appointment of soluble organic calcium preparations
The available data of fundamental research and evidence-based medicine showed a number of distinct advantages of using lactate, gluconate and calcium citrate. The introduction of preparations based on the above organic salts corresponds to the basic principle of clinical pharmacology - maximum efficiency and maximum safety. This principle corresponds to the soluble calcium drug based on organic salts of calcium Sandoz® Forte and biologically active additives (BAA) calcium d 3Sandoz® Osteo and calcium Sandoz® beauty. They are produced in the form of tablets (500 or 1000 mg of elemental calcium and 600 mg for calcium d 3Sandoz® osteo) for the preparation of an aqueous solution, which receives the patient. Reception of these funds also, in part, will contribute to compensation for insufficient consumption of drinking water (Fig. 5).
Calcium Sandoz® Forte contains three calcium salts (calcium lactate, calcium gluconate and calcium carbonate). In 1 tablet with 500 mg calcium, an equimolar mixture of calcium lactate and calcium gluconate in an amount of 1132 mg, calcium carbonate 875 mg (total 500 mg of elementary calcium) and 1662 mg of citric acid was contained. It should be hunted that the preparations of the drug are used to prepare a solution for drinking, which consumes the patient. During the preparation of an aqueous solution, a chemical interaction of calcium carbonate with citric acid with the formation of calcium citrate and volatile from a solution of carbon dioxide formed:
3Caco. 3+ 2c. 6H8O7→ CA. 3(C. 6H5O7)2+ 3Co. 2↑ + 3h. 2O
When dissolving the tablet of the preparation in water in the resulting solution, calcium cations are surrounded by organic acid anions (lactate, gluconate and citrate), which stabilize calcium ions in the solution and provide good bioavailability of ionized calcium form. For this reason, Sandoz® calcium is a selection preparation for the prevention of calcium deficiency.
Calcium D. 3Sandoz® osteo contains 600 mg / table. elemental calcium in the form of citrate, lactate and gluconate, 400 IU / Table. Vitamin D is designed to reduce the risk of osteoporosis development, including to increase bone mineral density and reducing the risk of fractures related to calcium deficiency; To maintain the normal level of calcium and vitamin D in order to reduce the risk of osteoporosis development in pre- and postmenopausal period. As is known, the risk factors for the development of osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures are the floor (female), age (over 65 years), the body mass index is less than or equal to 20 kg / m 2, Estrogen deficiency, low-wear lifestyle and diet with calcium deficiency and vitamin D .
Synergy properties of calcium components 3Sandoz® Osteo, offering both the consumption of highly visible organic salts of calcium and vitamin D, allows you to take it to compensate for calcium deficiency, and states associated with the deficit of this element: to increase the bone mineral density and reducing the risk of fractures, to reduce the risk of osteoporosis. Pre- and postmenopausal period.
Calcium citrate (1200 mg / day) in combination with vitamin D (800 mg / day) reduces the risk of fractures . The metaanalysis included 17 placebo-controlled studies (n = 52 625) and showed that the combination of calcium salts with vitamin D reduces the risk of fractures of all types by 13% . Comparative metaanalysis 15 clinical studies, in which a comparison of calcium carbonate bioavailability and calcium citrate was compared, totally included 184 patients and showed the best calcium citrate biomability. In accordance with the results of meta-analysis, calcium absorption from calcium citrate was significantly higher than from calcium carbonate: by 20% on average by sample, by 24% in the category "A", by 27% when taking an empty stomach and by 22% at reception during food .
Citrate Anion and by itself contributes to the normalization of the metabolism of the bone. The randomized study of elderly patients without osteoporosis (N = 201, 65 years and older) showed that the long-term reception of the potassium citrate (4.5 g / day for 2 years) contributed to the increase in the bone mineral density (on average by 1.7 ± 1, 5%, 95% confidence interval (di) 1.0-2.3, p <0.001), and this effect refers, apparently, precisely to the action of the anion citrate .
Among other things, calcium citrate in combination with vitamin D has a beneficial effect on the preservation of teeth. In the study of a group of 145 older people aged 65 years and older, patients were randomized either to obtain calcium citrate in the amount of 500 mg / day or 1000 mg / day (based on elementary calcium) and vitamin D (700 IU / day) within 2-year prevention programs for osteoporosis. Among patients receiving calcium in the amount of 500 mg / day, for 2 years of observations, a loss of at least one tooth in 40 of 68 participants (59%) was noted. At the same time, only in 33 of 77 patients (40%) receiving calcium at a dose of 1000 mg / day. The tooth loss was noted. Thus, the reception of calcium citrate in combination with vitamin D reduced the risk of teeth loss by 50% (OSH 0.5, 95% di 0.2-0.9) .
Correction of calcium deficiency is increditable to maintain health. Replenishment of calcium dietary deficiency for preventing disorders of bone tissue metabolism, skin, hair can be undertaken using different calcium salts. A significant difference between the inorganic salts (carbonate, calcium phosphate) and organic calcium salts (citrate, lactate, calcium gluconate) is their solubility and, therefore, calcium bioavailability.
Antacid Calcium carbonate, due to its cheapness and relative efficiency, for a long time they tried to apply not only for their intended purpose, but also to compensate for calcium deficiency. At the same time, the absorption of calcium from carbonate significantly depends on the state of the gastrointestinal tract and primarily on the acidity of the stomach (as calcium carbonate is practically insoluble in water).
Calcium carbonate is contraindicated in patients with reduced stomach acidity, with stomach and intestine polyps. Calcium carbonate reception is obviously undesirable against the background of taking estrogen-containing drugs. These pharmacology, experimental and clinical medicine indicate the effectiveness and safety of the use of such calcium organic salts, like lactate, gluconate and citrate for correction of calcium deficiency (Fig. 6). Among the organic salts, calcium citrate is characterized by the greatest solubility (the solubility line is as follows: Calcium citrate> calcium lactate> calcium gluconate).
The soluble calcium-based drugs based on organic salts manufactured, in particular, the Sandoz company in the form of effervescent tablets are completely dissolved in water and therefore much better is absorbed than insoluble carbonate or calcium phosphate. Sandoz® calcium Forte (1000 mg / table. Elementary calcium in the form of organic salts) can be used for the prevention and treatment of calcium deficiency among a wide range of patients, including pregnant women, women during lactation and children after three years. Bad Calcium D. 3Coastoz® osteo (organic calcium salts in combination with vitamin D) is designed to reduce the risk of osteoporosis, including to increase bone mineral density and reducing the risk of fractures related to calcium deficiency; To maintain the normal level of calcium and vitamin D in order to reduce the risk of osteoporosis development in pre- and postmenopausal period. Thus, in modern pharmacology, the transition to the maximum natural compensation for calcium deficiency in the form of use of aqueous solutions of a fully soluble and fast-coded calcium citrate was planned.
- World Health Organization. Calcium and Magnesiumindrinkingwater, 2009, p. 194.
- Norms of physiological needs for energy and food substances for various groups of the population of the Russian Federation, MP 184.108.40.2062-08.
- Maltsev S. V., Arkhipova N. N., Shakirova E. M. Vitamin D, calcium and phosphates in healthy children and with pathology. Kazan, 2012, 45 s.
- Gromova O. A., Volkov A. Yu., Torshin I. Yu., Gromov A. N., Knock V. V., Gogolev I. V. Comparative analysis of the solubility of various calcium preparations, depending on the acidity of the medium // Doctor. 2013, 7, p. 18-24.
- Richard W. Lime Kilns and Lime Burning. 2004. P. 4. ISBN 978-0-7478-0596-0.
- Lieberman H. A., LEON LACHMAN, JOSEPH B. Schwartz (1990). Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms: Tablets. New York: Dekker. P. 153. ISBN 0-8247-8044-2
- Mizunuma H., Okano H., Soda M., Tokizawa S., Kagami I., Miyamoto S., Honjo S., IBUKI Y. Calcium Supplements Increase Bone Mineral Density in Women With Low Serum Calcium Levels During Long-Term Estrogen Therapy // Endocr J. 1996; 43 (4): 411-415.
- YOSHIMURA C. A., Mathieu L., Hall A. H., Monteiro M. G., De Almeida D. M. Seventy Per Cent Hydrofluoric Acid Burns: Delayed Decontamination with Hexafluorine ® and Treatment with Calcium Gluconate // J Burn Care Res. 2011; 32 (4): E149-54 DOI.
- Capitani E. M., Hirano E. S., ZUIMIDE S., BERTANHA L., VIeira R. J., Madureira P. R., Bucaretchi F. FingerBurnscausedByconcentratedDrofluoricacid, TreatedWithintra-ARTERIALCALCIUMGLUCONATEINFUSION: Casereport // Sao Paulo MED J. 2009; 127 (6): 379-381.
- Giovanella L. Serum Procalcitonin and Calcitonin Normal Values Before and After Calcium Gluconate Infusion // Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes. 2012; 120 (3): 169-70 DOI.
- Ruilope L. M., Oliet A., Alcazar J. M., Hernandez E., Andres A. Rodicio J. L., Garcia-Robles R., Martinez J., Lahera V., Romero J. C. Characterization of the Renal Effects of An Intravenous Calcium Gluconate Infusion In Normotensive Volunteers // J Hypertens Suppl. 1989; 7 (6): S170-S171.
- HORSMAN A., Ryan S. W., Congdon P. J., Truscott J. G., Simpson M. Bone Mineral Accretion Rate and Calcium Intake in Preterm Infants // Arch Dis Child. 1989; 64 (7) SPEC: 910-918.
- Torshin I. Yu., Gromova O. A. 25 moments of molecular pharmacology. A-Vulture, 2012. 695 p.
- Gromova O., Volkov A., Treshin I., Gromov A., Kostakov V., Gogolev I. Comparative analysis of the solubility of various calcium preparations, depending on the acidity of the medium // Doctor. 2013. No. 7. P. 18-24.
- Toroptsova N. V., Benevolenskaya L. I. Osteoporosis: Modern approaches in the prevention of osteoporosis and fractures // RMG. 2003, № 7, p. 398.
- Quesada Gomez J. M., Blanch Rubio J., Diaz Curiel M., Diez Perez A. Calcium Citrate and Vitamin D in The Treatment of Osteoporosis // Clin Drug Investig. 2011; 31 (5): 285-98 DOI.
- Tang B. M., Eslick G. D., Nowson C., Smith C., Bensoussan A. Use of Calcium or Calcium in Combination with Vitamin D Supplementation to Prevent Fractures and Bone Loss in People Aged 50 Years and Older: A Meta-Analysis // LanCet. 2007, AUG 25; 370 (9588): 657-666.
- Sakhaee K., Bhuket T., Adams-Huet B., Rao D. S. Meta-Analysis Of Calcium Bioavailability: A COMPARISON OF CALCIUM CITRATE WITH CALCIUM CARBONATE // AM J THER. 1999; 6 (6): 313-321.
- Jehle S., Hulter H. N., Krapf R. Effect of Potassium Citrate on Bone Density, MicroArchitecture, and Fracture Risk in Healthy Old Adults Worthout Osteoporosis: A Randomized Controlled Trial // J Clinendocrinolmetab. 2013; 98 (1): 207-217.
- KRALL E. A., WEHLER C., GARCIA R. I., Harris S. S., Dawson-Hughes B. Calcium and Vitamin D Supplements Reduce Tooth Loss In The Elderly // Am J Med. 2001; 111 (6): 452-456.
- Limanova O. A., Torshin I. Yu., Sardaryan I. S., Kalacheva A. G., Hababpashev A., Karpuchin D., Kudrin A., Yudina N. V., Egorova E. Yu., Grishin T . R., Gromov A. N., Fedotova L. E., Rudakov K. V., Gromova O. A. Security Micronutrients and Women's Health: Establishment of interrelations based on intellectual analysis of clinical and epidemiological data // Questions of gynecology, obstetrics and perinatology. 2014, vol. 13, No. 2, p. 5-15.
O. A. Gromova * , one , Doctor of Medical Sciences, Professor I. Yu. Torshin **, PhD in Chemistry A. V. Pronin * E. Yu. Egorova *, Candidate of Medical Sciences A. Y. Volkov ***
* GBOU VPO IVGMA MH RF, Ivanovo. ** RSC International Institute of Microelements UNESCO, Moscow *** GBOU VPO RNYMU. N. I. Pirogova MZ of the Russian Federation, Moscow
1Contact Information: [email protected]
Do you know in what form are the minerals that you take?
What Minerals. Better absorbed in the body?
Not all forms are absorbed equally efficiently. Inorganic forms 1Only 5-40% bioavailable, and "as a gift", side effects can be attached to them: deposits of minerals in vessels, joints, kidneys and digestion disruption (bloating, constipation, diarrhea, etc.). The easiest is absorbed 2Mineral shape - chelate (organic). It is bioavailable by 90-98% and does not cause side effects. It is not by chance in Europe and the USA growing its popularity *.
Helat (from lat. "Chele" - clash) - this is a compound of mineral and amino acids, which looks outwardly reminds the cushion of the crab. The chelated form is closest to our organism. An example of such a form in the human body is hemoglobin.
Studies show that the chelate forms of minerals: calcium, magnesium, iron, etc. - are easily absorbed, and the body can, if necessary, can tolerate their large dosages without harm. 3. Chelany forms of minerals, in contrast to ordinary 1, assimilated by the body without side deposits in vessels, kidneys and joints. Chelates do not cause side disorders of digestion and bloating, since they do not affect the level of acidity of the stomach.
Bad. Is not a drug
What calcium, magnesium, choose iron?
The pharmaceutical company "Evalar" One of the first in Russia has developed a line of easily digestible chelate complexes that ensure the maximum absorption of calcium, magnesium and iron: calcium chelates, magnesium chelates and iron chelate. Allowed pregnant and nursing women 4. Production uses raw materials from the leading manufacturer of Germany.
Bad. Is not a drug
How to take, compatibility of minerals
Calcium and magnesium are well combined. Optimally take them in the evening, as calcium is better absorbed at night, and magnesium improves sleep. Iron should be taken in the morning separately - it may prevent the assimilation of other micro and macroelements.
To the catalog of goods - All minerals in chelated form
*Source: Magazine "Fitodoculator" No. 3 (53) p. 19 1Funds in the form of carbonate, citrate and other similar to absorbability. 2Sarah Cook. Chelated Minerals. Addressing Key Challenges in Mineral Supplementation // Natural Medicine Journal. RESEARCH GUIDE. - 2018. URL. 3Karkischenko N. N., Karcischenko V.N., Lublinsky S. L., Kapanzze G. D., Shustov E. B., Revyakin A. O., Bolotski L. A., Kasinskaya N. V., Stankov N . B. The role of trace elements in sports nutrition and safety of metalhelates // Biomedicine. 2013. № 2. 4By appointing a doctor. 5According to the DSM Group (DSM Group), for the period from January to July 2019, the weighted average retail price in terms of the day of reception of the biologically active additive "Magnesium Chelats" in the form of tablets No. 60 produced by Evalar is more profitable than that of the analogue . Analogue is selected by active substance.
Calcium is one of the electrolytes in the body. This is a mineral that carries an electric charge when dissolved in the blood. The role of calcium in the body is difficult to overestimate, since it is a building material for bone structures, supports the health of cell membranes and takes part in the transmission of nerve impulses. Also calcium has a detoxification, anti-inflammatory and anti-allergenic effect.
About 99% of calcium in the body is stored in the bones. However, cells (especially muscle cells) and blood also contain calcium. Calcium is required for:
- formations of bones and teeth;
- muscle contractions;
- blood coagulation;
- maintaining functions of enzymes and hormones;
- ensuring normal heart rhythm.
The body accurately controls the amount of calcium in cells and blood. As required, the mineral moves from bones to blood to maintain a permanent balance. When people do not consume a sufficient amount of calcium, he "takes" from the bones, which weakens them. The result may be osteoporosis. To maintain a normal level of calcium in the blood, without weakening the bone, it is necessary to consume at least 1000-1500 mg calcium per day. This requires balanced nutrition or medicines.
The best calcium preparations are represented in the ranking below. Top is compiled depending on the efficiency and safety of medicines, as well as on the basis of feedback. No less important criterion - cost-quality compliance. Self pick up the medicine is not easy. To begin with, consult with a doctor and, if necessary, pass the survey to clarify the diagnosis.
Classification of calcium preparations
Calcium deficiency often develops crawl, and then long remains unnoticed. This condition can have a negative effect on bone health. Thus, the risk of developing osteoporosis and bone fractures increases.
With a significant deficit, the following symptoms are possible:
- tingling in the limbs;
- twitching muscles;
- convulsions and numbness;
- excessive concern;
- deterioration of skin and hair;
- Excessive nail fragility;
- periodontal and caries;
- Disorders of digestive functions.
Experts recommend taking calcium additives only with proven deficit of this mineral and vitamin D or, as well as with existing osteoporosis. The main thing is to choose to choose the drug and dosage.
Calcium preparations are classified as follows:
- Lactat. Uses with the body with any pH values. You can take, regardless of the used food. This pharmacological group successfully protects the insufficient effects of estrogen-containing drugs. As a monotherapy does not allow to fill the calcium need.
- Gluconate. Used as a topical agent or in the form of an injection solution. Preparations included in this group physiologically stimulate the release of the active shape of the calcitonin molecule. This has a positive effect on the kidney functions, having a sodium and vasodilator effect. Calcium gluconate is a safe and effective calcium form, which can be used to increase the density of bone structures in premature children.
- Citrate. Exceptional calcium form, which is the most efficient and most secure as possible. The advantage is complete dissolution in water and assimilation, regardless of the acidity of the gastric juice and food intake. Calcium citrate is a selection preparation for people with reduced acidity of gastric juice and elderly patients who take proton pump inhibitors and antacids. Also, this group of calcium preparations contributes to the dissolution of the stones in the kidneys.
Less secure are inorganic calcium salts: phosphate and carbonate. Antacid Calcium carbonate can not fully absorbed the body, which depends on the acidity of the gastric juice and the general state of the gastrointestinal tract. Phosphates are also practicing completely neutralize acid, so they have a number of contraindications to use.
Causes of calcium deficiency in the body
To properly perform your diverse tasks, calcium must be present in the body in sufficient quantity. But what is a sufficient number? Daily needs differ in the age groups. In contrast to many other nutrients, the need for calcium does not depend on the gender. Men and women need mineral to the same degree.
Table - the daily need for calcium, depending on age
Calcium amount, mg / day
From 1 to 4 years
From 4 to 7 years
From 7 to 10 years
From 10 to 15 years
From 15 to 19 years
From 19 years and older
Pregnant and nursing women
It is amazing not only that men and women require the same amount of calcium. In addition, the fact that the need for pregnant and lactating women is practically not increased, distinguishes calcium from other nutrients. Nevertheless, women should individually agree on their nutrient needs with an obstetrician to eliminate scarce states.
Considering the main functions that calcium takes on itself in the body, it becomes clear that the deficit of minerals can seriously affect health.
Among the main causes of deficit states should be allocated:
- Monotonous nutrition. Calcium is present in sufficient quantities, primarily in the dairy products of animal origin. The lack of mineral is diagnosed mainly in vegans and people with lactose intolerance.
- Disorders of the gastrointestinal tract. With disorders of the digestion system related to problems such as vomiting, nausea, bloating and diarrhea, the absorption of nutrients can be difficult or prevented.
- Diseases of the kidneys (renal failure). Reduce the removal of phosphate mineral. Although phosphate is not actually harmful to the body, an increased concentration can change the level of calcium in the body. As a result, a scarce state is developing.
- Thyroid dysfunction (hypothyroidism). Thyroid gland produces a hormone that adjusts the calcium balance. With inflammation of the pancreas, the function of the absorption of nutrients from food is disturbed. Therefore, as a result of this disease, calcium is disturbed.
Calcium deficiency can cause diuretics. Drugs of this group are used in renal failure, as well as in diseases of the liver, edema, hypertension and heart failure.
With age, the performance of our digestive system is reduced. As a result, the body becomes harder to release and absorb nutrients from food. However, the elderly are subject to particularly high risk of calcium deficiency. With age, the bone substance also loosens.
Vitamin D deficiency is one of the most common causes of the lack of calcium. As we already know, absorbed mainly in the intestine. Vitamin D (cholecalciferol) contributes to suction from the subtle intestine and the introduction of calcium into the bone. Thus, Vitamin D plays a decisive role in the absorption of calcium.
Vitamin D is essentially not vitamin, but the predecessor of the hormone, which the body can produce himself. The main requirement for this is sunlight, because the impact of ultraviolet rays on the skin leads to the formation of vitamin D, and then to further processes in the kidneys and the liver for the production of an effective substance called calcitriol.
It is already reliably known that 91% of women and 82% of men are not sufficiently provided with vitamin D. Therefore, it is strongly recommended that regular consumption of products rich in vitamin D. But, as practice shows, in most cases it is not enough to replenish deficient states. In this case, good calcium is needed in tablets.
Calcium preparation rating
To begin with, it is recommended to normalize nutrition. The most famous products rich in calcium are milk and dairy products. Already 200 ml of cow milk provides about 240 mg of calcium and, thus, cover almost ¼ daily calcium needs. By the way, the fat content of milk does not matter, this does not affect the maintenance of the mineral.
Cheeses, especially solid varieties, such as Parmesan or Tilzit, are especially rich in calcium. For example, 30 g of "Tilsita" provides about 250 mg of calcium.
But even through vegetable products, we can satisfy our needs for calcium. Especially recommended:
- Green leafy vegetables, such as cabbage, arugula or fennel;
- herbs such as parsley or dill;
- Nuts and seeds also contribute to the targeted supply of calcium.
The fact that mineral water can also be a good source of calcium, many people do not know. Mineral waters may contain more than 500 mg / l of this mineral. Starting with 150 mg of calcium / liter, mineral water can be called rich in calcium.
Rich sources of calcium are drug addicts and biodenders. To achieve the result, the result by the manufacturer must clearly follow the instructions for use.
Top 11 calcium preparations
From this list you can choose the most suitable:
№1 - "Calcium-D3 Nicomed" (Takeda, Russia)
Combined drug, developed based on calcium carbonate. The clinical and pharmacological group is directed to the regulation of phosphorus and calcium metabolism. Chewing pills improve the condition of nails, hair, teeth and muscle structures. Produced with tasteLemon.
"Calcium-d3 nicomed" is included in the list of the best calcium preparations, since increases the density of bone tissue and fills the lack of vitamin D3 in the body. As a result, nervous conductivity improves, muscle contractions are normalized and the blood coagulation indicators are normalized. The drug is widely used during the growth period, in the process of pregnancy and lactation, excluding deficit states.
№2 - "Calcium-Magnesium-Zinc / Calcium Magnesium Plus Zinc" (Solgar, United States)
A biologically active additive to food, which is an additional source of minerals:
- calcium - preserves the strength of bone structures;
- Magnesium - ensures a uniform distribution of calcium in the body and contributes to his absorption;
- Zinc - takes part in the development of own collagen in bone structures.
Tablets are in second place in calcium drug rating due to the fact that the combination of minerals is presented in a special chelated form. The active substances are maximally absorbed by the body.
№3 - "Calckene Advance" (Bayer, United States)
The drug refers to such a pharmacotherapeutic group as a calcium-phosphoric exchange regulator. The composition includes micro and macroelements, as well as vitamins. The action of the tablets is due to the properties of active components:
- forms bone tissue, increasing its density and reducing resorption;
- prevents the development of diseases of the musculoskeletal system;
- Strengthens the bone system and articular structures.
Calcium citrate is absorbed, regardless of the secretory functions of the gastrointestinal tract. Thanks to Vitamin D3, mineral exchange is regulated in the body.
It is prescribed for the prevention and complex treatment of osteoporosis to women in the menopacteric period, with the use of immunosuppressants and glucocorticosteroids, as well as with therapy of various diseases of the musculoskeletal system. Also, the drug "Cacckene Advance" is shown to adolescents to replenish the deficit of trace elements in the body.
№4 - "Calckener" (Bayer, United States)
Controller calcium-phosphoric exchange. The drug "Cecein" is developed on the basis of calcium, vitamin D3 and osteotropic minerals governing metabolic processes.
The effect of tablets covered with film shell due to active ingredients:
- calcium - forms bone tissue, increasing and preventing disorders from the musculoskeletal system;
- Colecalciferol - preserves the structure of the bones, contributes to the improvement of the absorption of minerals in the intestinal area;
- zinc - synthesize sex hormones, preventing the destruction of bone structures;
- Copper - synthesize elastin and collagen, normalizing bone mass formation processes;
- Manganese - forms proteoglycans forming protein matrix.
It is not recommended to be taken with hypercalcinuria and hypercalcemia, in the case of vitamin D3 hypervitaminosis, with nephrolithiasis, severe form of renal failure. Among absolute contraindications should be the active form of tuberculosis, children's age up to 5 years and decalcining neoplasms.
If you do not know which calcium for pregnant women in tablets to choose, then "Calc Chisin" is the most suitable option. Preliminary consultation with an obstetrician-gynecologist leading pregnancy is mandatory.
№5 - "Calcium citrate + vitamin D / Calcium Citrate + D" (Alpha Vitamins Laboratories, USA)
The drug was developed on the basis of minerals and is intended for the prevention and complex treatment of osteoporosis of idiopathic, steroid or postmenopausal type. Used in complications, such as bone fractures, and also assigned to eliminate deficit states.
It is recommended to take with the increased need of the body in vitamin D3 and calcium, for example during pregnancy and during lactation, as well as in children's and adolescence in periods of intensive development.
№6 - "Complivit Calcium D3" (Farmstandart-Lexers, Russia)
Chewing pills with orange flavor regulate the mineral-vitamin balance, improving the state of muscular and bone structures. The drug effectively copes with osteomalysis associated with violation of mineral exchanges in people aged 45 and older.
It is recommended to take aged 12, completely swallowing or chewing. Among the adverse reactions should be highlighted with hypercalcium and hypercalcemia, diarrhea, pain in the abdomen or stomach, as well as allergic reactions.
№7 - "Calcium Gluckonat" (Renewal, Russia)
Tablets are designed to replenish the deficit of minerals in the body. Developed on the basis of calcium gluconate monohydrate. The active substance is involved in the formation of bone tissue and in the process of coagulation of blood. Used to maintain cardiac activity and improves the transmission processes of nerve impulses.
The drug "Calcium Gluconate" improves the contractile activities of muscle structures, helping to cope with miastenia, muscle dystrophy and elevated vascular permeability. The effect is achieved by exciting the sympathetic nervous system and enhancing the release of adrenaline adrenaline. Tablets have a temperate diuretic action.
№8 - "Vitamins Calcium + Vitamin D" (Pharmamed, USA)
Chewing pasteings contain natural vegetable and fruit extracts. Designed to enrich the children's body with minerals and vitamins. The action is directed to:
- Reducing the risk of the development of caries;
- Strengthening teeth and bones.
It is appointed for children aged 3 years 1 Paste 2 times a day. Children from 7 years and older - 2 pasteings 2 times a day. It is recommended to take during meals.
№9 - "Calcium 600 from Oysters Rachin with D3" (SOLGAR, USA)
It allows you to prevent calcium deficit in children and adults, eliminating the development of rickets, osteolysis (destruction of bone structures), cramps and muscle spasms. Also eliminates the likelihood of diseases such as intestinal cancer and high pressure, which are related to a lack of calcium in the body.
The course of treatment contributes to an increase in the density and growth of bones, the development and normal functioning of muscle structures. Calcium carbonate derived from oyster shells, protects bones and teeth from lead, harmful metal, which is accumulated in the body with deficit states.
№10 - "Calcium D3" (Renewal, Russia)
Chewing tablets are a biologically active additive to food, representing an additional source of minerals and vitamins. It is not recommended to take in the presence of individual intolerance, with renal failure and with an increased concentration of calcium and vitamin D blood or urine.
№11 - "Doppelherz Active Magnesium + Calcium" (Queisser Pharma, Germany)
Tablets are prescribed with elevated physical and mental loads, as well as to reduce the risk of developing atherosclerosis and diseases of the cardiovascular system. Doctors recommend taking an additional source of minerals with unbalanced nutrition and when conducting an unhealthy lifestyle. Among absolute readings should be allocated in the regions with a degraded ecological situation and frequent stressful situations.
The effectiveness of the drug is due to its composition:
- Magnesium - improves the functions of the heart muscle, restoring contractile abilities;
- Calcium - normalizes blood clotting processes, takes part in reducing smooth and skeletal muscles, and also derives salts of radionuclides and heavy metals.
The drug is intended for adults. It is recommended to take 1 tablet per day, unless otherwise not written by the doctor.
What drugs are absorbed better
Calcium preparations are better absorbed if they are developed on the basis of citrate. This connection in the biological plan is very valuable and is a tool for delivery of building material bone structures. Citrate calcium is useful in that it is observing urin, preventing the development of renal stones and urinary tract infections. It also regulates the energy exchange and slows the synthesis of the parathgamon, preventing the washing of minerals from the body.
But approximately 85% of drugs presented in the pharmaceutical market are developed on the basis of carbonate, which is less efficient. But coalic acid has its advantage that consists in a high content of elementary calcium - more than 50%. But carbonate, unfortunately, is absorbed by only 15-20%. And such drugs cause disorders from the gastrointestinal tract, which should be considered before use. This is due to the fact that with the decay of coalic acid, carbon dioxide is formed, which is the cause of the abdomen.
Due to the fact that the formation of bone structures is subject to general biological laws, calcium is not the only necessary mineral in order for the processes to flow continuously and in a reasonable ratio. It is important to restore the mechanisms of calcium metabolism before giving the body with calcium. To improve the processes of assimilation of minerals and consolidate them in skeletal tissues, not only vitamin D3, but also B6 (thiamine) is needed. Comprehensive impact allows you to achieve a more pronounced and strong result.findings
The calcium-containing funds market is extensive, but many not many of the pharmaceutical diversity are actually deserve. This is due to the fact that not all pills are equally effective and safe.
Calcium preparation rating will help determine which of the funds presented is better. But it should be understood that the preliminary consultation with a specialist is a guarantee of effective treatment and eliminating the likelihood of developing adverse reactions. Choose the best calcium in tablets only on the basis of the results of the diagnostic studies. The doctor, when prescribing a drug, is repelled from the root cause of deficient states, assigning concomitant therapy to eliminate it.
The prevention of hypocalcemia includes not only the reception of the tablets, but also balanced nutrition, reception of vitamin D3 and daily walks in the fresh air. The value also has to maintain physical activity and occupation of accumulating sports.
Literature:https://www.vidal.ru/drugs/atc/a12axhttpps://www.lvrach.ru/2014/11/15436097htttpps://cyberleninka.ru/article/n/sravnitelnyy-analiz-soderzhaniya-kaltsiya-v- Kaltsiysoderzhaschih-f ... https: //www.vidal.ru/drugs/molecule-in/154