Mars pictures with Hubble Space Telescope during the Great Confrontation of 2003
At the end of the 19th century, optical illusions gave rise to a hypothesis on the presence of a branched network of channels, which are created by highly developed civilization. These assumptions coincided with the first spectroscopic observations of Mars, which mistakenly accepted the lines of oxygen and water vapor of the earth's atmosphere for the line of the Martian atmosphere.
Artistic image of the start to Marsa Heroes of Roman A. Tolstoy "Aelita"
As a result of this, at the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century, the idea of the presence of a developed civilization in Mars became popular. The most vivid illustrations of this theory were the artistic novels "War of the Worlds" of Wales and "Aelita" A. Tolstoy. In the first case, the warlike Martians attempted to capture the Earth with the help of a giant gun, which fired the cylinders with the landing towards the Earth. In the second case, earthlings for traveling Mars use a rocket operating on gasoline. If in the first case the interplanetary flight takes several months, then in the second we are talking about 9-10 hours of flight.
The distance between Mars and the Earth varies widely: from 55 to 400 million km. Typically, planets come closer once every 2 years (ordinary confrontation), but due to the fact that the orbit of Mars has a big eccentricity, once every 15-17 years have more close convergence (great confrontations).
The table clearly shows that the great confrontations differ due to the fact that the orbit of the Earth is not circular. In this regard, the greatest confrontations, which happen about once every 80 years (for example, in 1640, 1766, 1845, 1924 and 2003) are distinguished. It is interesting to note that people began the beginning of the 21st century witnessed the greatest confrontation in several thousand years. During the confrontation of 2003, the distance between the land and Mars was 1900 km less than in 1924. On the other hand, it is believed that the confrontation of 2003 was minimal in the last 5 thousand years.
Great confrontations of Mars
Great confrontations played a big role in the history of the study of Mars, as they allowed to obtain the most detailed images of Mars, as well as simplified the interplanetary flights.
By the beginning of the cosmic era, ground infrared spectroscopy significantly reduced the chances of life on Mars: it was determined that the main component of the atmosphere is carbon dioxide, and the oxygen content in the atmosphere of the planet is minimal. In addition, the average temperature on the planet was measured, which turned out to be comparable to the polar regions of the Earth.
The first radar of Mars
Reception Antenna Radar Adu-1000 (Pluto) in Crimea
The 60s of the 20th century were noted by significant progress in the study of Mars, since the space era began, as well as the possibility of mars radar. In February 1963, in the USSR, with the help of the ADU-1000 radar (Pluto), the first successful radar of Mars was carried out in the Crimea consisting of eight 16-meter antennas. At that moment, the Red Planet was 100 million km from the ground. The transmission of the radar signal was held at a frequency of 700 megahertz, and the total time of passing radio signals from Earth to Mars and back was 11 minutes. The reflection coefficient at the surface of Mars turned out to be less than Venus, although at times he reached 15%. It proved that on Mars there are even horizontal sections of more than one kilometer.
Possible flight trajectories to Mars
Flight trajectory to Mars
The flight in a straight line to Mars is not possible, since the trajectory of any spacecraft will have a gravitational effect of the sun. Therefore, three variants of the trajectory are possible: elliptical, parabolic and hyperbolic.
Elliptical (Gomanovskaya) flight trajectory to Mars
The theory of the simplest flight trajectory to Mars (Elliptical), which has minimal fuel costs was developed in 1925 by the German scientist Walter Goman. Despite the fact that this trajectory was independently offered by Soviet scientists by Vladimir Hadeskina and Friedrich Zander, the trajectory is now widely known as Gomanovskaya.
Goman trajectory flight to Mars
In fact, this trajectory is a half of the segment of the elliptical orbit around Sun. , Pericenter (the nearest point of orbit to the sun) of which is near the point of departure (Planet Earth), and the Apocenter (the most remote point of orbit from the Sun) near the arrival point (Planet Mars). To move to the simplest Goman flight trajectory to Mars, the rate of near-earth satellite of the Earth is 2.9 km per second (excess of the second space speed).
The most favorable windows for flight to MARS from a ballistic point of view occur around once every 2 years and 50 days. Depending on the initial flight speed from the ground (from 11.6 km per second to 12 km per second), the flight duration to Mars varies from 260 to 150 days. A decrease in the time of the interplanetary flight occurs not only because of the increase in speed, but also reduce the length of the arc of the ellipse of the trajectory. But at the same time, the speed of the meeting with the planet Mars is increasing: C 5.7 to 8.7 km per second, which complicates the flight to the need to safely reduce speed: for example, to access Martian orbit or to land on the surface of Mars.
Table of parameters of possible trajectories of the flight to Mars in goman trajectories
Examples of flight duration to Mars on an elliptical trajectory
For 60 years of space era, 50 space missions of automatic probes were sent to Mars (of which 2 of the apparatus used by Mars only for a gravitational span - "Down" and "Rosetta"). Only 34 cosmic probe from this fifty were able to reach an interplanetary flight path to Mars. The duration of the flight to Marsa for these probes (the most well-known unsuccessful missions are also included):
- "Mars-1" - 230 days (loss of communication on the 140th day of flight)
- "Mariner-4" - 228 days
- "Zond-2" - 249 days (loss of communication for the 154th day of flight)
- "Mariner-5" - 156 days
- "Mariner-6" - 131 days
x) 2x "Mars-69" - 180 days (clarification pH)
- "Mars-2" - 191 days
- "Mars-3" - 188 days
- "Mariner-9" - 168 days
- "Mars-4" - 204 days
- "Mars-5" - 202 days
- "Mars-6" - 219 days
- "Mars-7" - 212 days
- "Viking-1" - 304 days
- "Viking-2" - 333 days
- "Phobos-1" - 257 days (loss of communication for the 57th day of flight)
- "Phobos-2" - 257 days
- "Mars Observer" - 333 days (loss of communication for the 330th day of flight)
x) "Mars-96" - 300 days (accident RB)
18) Mars Polefainder - 212 days
19) "Mars Global Server" - 307 days
20) "Nosomy" (1st attempt) - 295 days
20) "Nosomy" (2nd attempt) - 178 days (loss of communication at the 173th day of flight)
21) "Mars Clivered Orbiter" - 286 days
22) "Mars Polar Landder" - 335 days
23) Mars Odyssey 2001 "- 200 days
24) "Spirit" - 208 days
25) "Opportunities" - 202 days
26) "Mars Express" - 206 days
27) MRO - 210 days
28) "Phoenix" - 295 days
29) "Curiositi" - 250 days
x) "Mars Phobos Soil" - 325 days (stayed in an near-earth orbit)
30) Maven - 308 days
31) MOM - 298 days
32) "EKSOMARS 2016" - 219 days
As can be seen from this list, a small (412 kg) fleet of Mariner-6 in 1969 became the shortest flight to Marsa in 1969: 131 days. The longest flights were made by orbital and landing missions "Mars Parliament Landnder" (335 days), Mars Observer and Viking-2 (333 days). Obviously, these missions were at the limit of the possibilities of existing missiles. The same long flight (11 months) was supposed to make the Russian mission "Mars Phobos Grunt" when returning with the soil of Phobos to the Earth.
Mission "Phobos Grunt"
The mission "Mars Phobos Soil" was the first attempt to work flight to Mars and back. The duration of such a flight was supposed to be 2 years and 10 months. Similar projects were developed in the USSR in the 70s of the 20th century, only they provided for the delivery of the soil not from the surface of Phobos, but from the surface of Mars. In this regard, they envisaged to use either the superheavy rocket H1 or two launch of the heavy pH of the Proton.
In addition, it is possible to note the long flights between the land and Mars, which made two probes for studying small objects Solar system : Dawn (509 days) and "rosette" (723 days).
Flight conditions for Mars
The conditions of interplanetary space on the flight path to Mars are one of the most studied among different areas of the interplanetary space of the solar system. Already the first interplanetary flight between the land and Mars, performed by the Soviet station "Mars-1" in 1962-1963, showed the presence of meteororal streams: the micrometeorite detector of the station registered the blows of micrometeorites every 2 minutes at a distance of 20-40 million km from the ground. Also measuring the same station allowed measurement of the intensity of magnetic fields in the interplanetary space: 3-9 Nanotex.
Since there are numerous human flight projects for Mars, a special role in such studies occupy space radiation in interplanetary space. To do this, on board the most perfect Martian Rover ("Curiositi") a radiation detector (RAD) was installed. Its measurements have shown that even a short interplanetary flight is a greater danger to human health.
The accumulated dose of radiation during the flight is about a hundred times more than the usual resident for the year and almost 2 times higher than during a semi-annual flight to the ISS
An even more interesting experiment to study the influence of the conditions of a long interplanetary flight to living organisms was to be held as part of the failed Russian mission "Mars-Phobos-Grunt". Its returned apparatus in addition to the soil samples carried the 100-gram life module with ten different microorganisms. The experiment was supposed to allow estimating the effect of the interplanetary environment for a three-year space flight.
Studying the possibility of a person's flight to Mars
In parallel with the first attempts to launch automatic probes to Mars since 1960, the USSR and the United States were developing projects of manned flight to Mars with a launch guideline in 1971. These projects were distinguished by the mass of the interplanetary vehicle hundreds of tons and the presence of a special compartment with a high level of protection against cosmic radiation, where the crew should have been hidden during solar flares. Power supply such ships should be carried out from nuclear reactors or very large solar panels. As part of preparation for such flights, terrestrial experiments were carried out on the isolation of people ("Mars-500" and Martian polygons in the Canadian Arctic, Hawaii, etc.) and experiments on the creation of closed biospheres (BIOS and BIOSFER-2) . As can be seen from the name "Mars-500" experiment, there is a flight option to Mars about 500 days, which is 2 times shorter than in the classical scheme (2-3 years).
Scheme 550-daily flight from the RKK "Energia", which provides for the use of trajectories relating to the orbits of Venus
As can be seen in comparison with the classic time of stay in the Mars system in this case, it is reduced from 450 to 30 days.
Parabolic flight trajectory to Mars
In the case of a flight to Mars on a parabolic trajectory, the initial speed of the spacecraft must be equal to the third space rate: 16.7 km per second. In this case, the flight between the Earth and Mars will be only 70 days. But at the same time, the speed of the meeting with the planet Mars will increase to 20.9 km per second. The speed of the spacecraft relative to the Sun during Parabol flight will decrease from 42.1 km per second at the Earth to 34.1 km per second at Mars.
Flying with a landmark will take a parabolic trajectory of only 5 months
But at the same time, energy costs for overclocking and braking will increase by about 4.3 times compared to flight along the elliptical (goman) trajectory.
The relevance of such flights grows due to severe radiation in the interplanetary space. Although the flight of a parabolic trajectory requires a greater amount of fuel, on the other hand, it reduces the requirements for radiation protection and the amount of oxygen, water and food reserves for the crew of the spacecraft. Parabolic trajectories are in a very narrow range, therefore it is much more interesting to consider a wide range of hyperbolic trajectories, during which the spacecraft will move to MARS with a runoff rate from the solar system, which exceeds the third cosmic speed.
Hyperbolic trajectory flight to Mars
Humanity has already mastered the possibility of overclocking spacecraft to hyperbolic velocities. For 60 years of space era, 5 launches of space probes were carried out in the interstellar space ("Pioneer-10", "Pioneer-11", "Voyager-1", "Voyager-2" and "new horizons"). So the "new horizons" it took only 78 days to fly from the ground to the Martian orbit. Recently, the open first interstellar object "Oumuamua" has even greater hyperbolic speed: the space between the earth and Martian orbita he flew in just 2 weeks.
Materials on the topic
Currently, flight projects are being developed to Mars on hyperbolic trajectories. Here, high hopes are imposed on electrical (ionic) rocket engines, in which the expiration rate can reach 100 km per second (for comparison of chemical engines, this indicator is limited to 5 km per second). Currently, this direction is developing rapidly. So ion engines of the DAWN probe engines were able to ensure the increment of speed more than 10 kilometers per second, using only half-bottom xenon for 10 years of the mission, which is a record for any interplanetary station. The main minus such engines is a small power caused by the use of low-power energy sources (solar cells). So the European SMART-1 station for the flight with a geo-edge orbit to the moon took a whole year. For comparison, ordinary lunar stations flew to the moon in just a few days. In this regard, the equipment of interplanetary ships by ion engines will be closely associated with the development of cosmic nuclear power plants. This is it expected that the VASIMR engine (Variable Specific Impulse Magnetoplasma Rocket) with a capacity of 200 megawatts and argon operating on the argon will be able to carry out 40-day man flights to Mars. For comparison, the submarines of the class "Sifulf" use a 34 megawatt nuclear reactor, and the aircraft carrier of the class "Gerald Ford" 300 megawny nuclear reactor.
Even more tempting prospects in the field of flights to Mars, the project of the engine X3 is promised, which is theoretically able to deliver a person to Mars in just 2 weeks. Recently, this engine, developed by scientists of the University of Michigan, US Air Force and NASA has shown a record power (100 kW) and craving (5.4 Newton). The previous rust record for the ion engine was 3.3 Newton.
About how much to fly to Mars from the Earth, humanity is thinking for a long time. The fourth planet from the sun is considered as a promising source of minerals, a possible area for the settlement of people and just an excellent tourist destination for space travelers. After all, examining all the corners of his planet, a person seeks to see that it is far beyond. Our neighbor in the solar system is presented as the most friendly object for visiting.
In the article, we will tell me how to fly to the Red Planet in time and why people generally need such flights, we will also consider all possible problems of such travel and ways to overcome them.
How many kilometers fly to Mars
Mars is not the closest planet closest to the ground. According to this parameter, it is ahead of Venus. But the extremely high temperature of its surface, as well as an atmosphere saturated with sulfuric acid, make it completely unsuitable for travel. Mars almost does not have an atmosphere, the average temperature on it is comparable to the temperature of the Arctic winter, and only strong sandy storms can represent the danger to researchers. Theoretically, with proper equipment, a person is able to survive such conditions.
If people still gather in such a journey, what distance do they need to overcome? How much time will take the "trip" to the fourth planet?
The distance from the ground to Mars is constantly changing. This is due to the fact that each of their planets has its own trajectory of movement around the Sun. Also, unlike the orbit of our planet, the orbit of the neighbor has a more elongated form. The maximum distance between them is 401.33 * 10 6 km, and minimal - 54,56 * 10 6km. The convergence of the planets is observed at the moment when the earth turns out to be at the point of Aflia, and the fourth planet is at the perihelion point. This time will be optimal for travel planning for the Red Planet.
How much time to fly on Mars
How much time will you need to overcome the distance between the land and Mars? To begin with, we will imagine that the ship carrying space travelers develops the same speed as the most high-speed Space Probe "New Horizons". Its maximum speed was 58 * 10 3km / h
Consequently, under the ideal conditions, traveling flight to Mars for a person on a spacecraft such "new horizons" on the shortest trajectory will take 39 days or 936 hours. At maximum distance, you can fly to the Red Planet for 6920 hours or 288 days.
However, in the case of flight to the fifth planet, "Cut" will not work. All due to the fact that the initial and endpoints of the journey are all the time in motion. Then there is a question, how should the way before the Red Planet should be to spend the minimum of fuel and spend the smallest number of days?
Allocate three routes from Earth to the fourth planet:
Goman trajectory. From the starting point (our planet), the spacecraft will start moving along the elliptical trajectory, having passed its half segment, the end point of which Martian orbit will become. At the same time, the initial velocity of the ship must be 11.57 km / s (above the second cosmic). All the way will last about 260 days. It was by such a trajectory that most Martian orbital satellites and rinsives launched.
Parabolic trajectory. This way to Mars is a half pearabela segment. He is the shortest, flight between the planets will be only 80 days. But in order to send a spacecraft for such a route, it must be overclocked to the third space speed - 16.7 km / s. For such a maneuver, it will take 4 times more fuel than it is necessary when the interplanetary transport is launched along the Goman trajectory. This reduces food costs, livestock and radiation protection products. Also such a short path less negative will affect the crew health.
Hyperbolic trajectory. The most promising route for space travel. For example, it was this trajectory that was selected to start the "new horizons" probe. He reached the Martian orbit for only 78 days. Spaceship, moving along a hyperbolic orbit, must break the speed exceeding 16.7 km / s. At the same time, he will initially fly past the fifth planet, but under the influence of its gravity will change its direction in such a way that the whole path will resemble hyperbola. However, the chemical engines that are equipped with modern rockets are not able to provide such an acceleration of the ship. It is only with ion engines, the development of which is now actively implemented.
Why fly on Mars
We have already figured out how many kilometers fly to Mars and how long the trip will last. But is it worth it all costs? After all, to create a ship with powerful ion engines, crew preparation and all fuel and food reserves, you need to spend simply astronomical amounts. So why fly on Mars?
The first goal is-examination. According to many researchers, the planet once had an atmosphere developed hydrosphere. It was also experimentally proven that some types of earth plants were able to grow in MartianGerman. Traveling to shed light on the past of this celestial body. In addition, scientists could continue experiments on the drift of living organisms on Martian source.
The second goal is colony. Humanity has long been looking for a place to relocate, where it will be possible to evacuate urgently in the case of a global catastrophe on Earth. Currently, the fourth planet of the solar system, of course, are far from ideal. But there are already on theories about how to create an artificial atmosphere on it to make a human settlement.
The third goal is to tourism. The fact of tourist cruises to Martian crater seem fiction writers. But tourists have repeatedly visited the International Spacestant. Flights to our red neighbor is the next stage of this profitable and experimental direction.
Danger of Martian Travel
As we have already found out, the flight to Mars will take at least 80 days. And such a long space trip can not have no consequences for the crew of the ship. In addition, the flight itself can go at all in terms of plan, because all dangers and difficulties are simply impossible to predict. What can be dangerous flight to Mars?
Influence on mental physical health
Space radiation is affected by living organisms. Astronauts will be in some degree from it, being in the redistribution of the spacecraft. But the researchers cleaned that they will receive a dose of irradiation to the Martian orbit for the time of the Martian orbit. For assessment, the annual dose of irradiation on Earth is 2.5 mSv. This defias the extremely negative impact on the nervous, vascular Ipissession system of travelers. In addition, the risk of development in nichrigue tumors will increase ten times. If the ship will fall the sub flow of a high-energy sunshine, no protection will protect the crew from death as a result of acute radiation.
In addition to radiation, the danger of health of astronauts carries a long state of weightlessness. In the lack of attraction, the musculoskeletal system and the circulatory system speeds up their tone. Rehabilitation after the flight will take at least 2 years, the reservoirs for health can haunt travelers all the rest.
Insulated apart, monotonous nutrition, overwork and other costs of the duration of the bottomhole flight will negatively affect the psyche of the first Martian travelers. This can lead to conflicts in a team and even to real psychic development.
It is impossible to predict the flight scenario. At any time, a vehicle breakdown can occur to the vehicle for a small cosmic body. In addition, it can hit the stream of solar wind or to the epicenter of the Martian sandstone.
To send people to Red Blanche, scientists must equip the ship by backup engines. Besides to concee its living quarters from radiation and dust. This is a complex and cost-proof processing and there is no right to make a mistake. Therefore, the flight will take place only when all the technical systems will be brought to almost perfection. Judge in this case, the risk of the death of the crew is very high.
When will fly?
We disassembled all the flight nuances to the fourth planet solar system. Now it remains to find out when people fly to Mars?
Several public areas of private space companies announced the planning of fast flights to Mars.
The American company Space X, which is engaged in the creation of space equipment, introduced a draft reusable manned spacecraft. Onnekvement for the delivery of the first colonialists of Mars. The ship will be equipped with a cryogenic methane fuel engineer. It can be used for twelve repeated flights.
According to the formation of the founder of Ilona Mask, the first delivery of goods on the surface of the Red Planet is a connection in 2022. The flight of a person on Mars is planned in 2024-2025.
The Netherlands company Mars One also declared the selection of the Conqueriatrist Marse Walkers. According to the statements of its founders there, the colonists will irrevocably, whose task will explore the Red Planet to make conditions for the lives of new colonies. The life of the team was expected in real time. Mars One has already selected suitable candidates of the SPONSORS and equipment suppliers for the mission, but in 2019 the year was recognized as bankrupt. Financing and existence of a project questionable. If the company's management will be able to find new investors, a person flight to Mars will be held in 2026.
Scientists conduct many studies regarding 4 planets of the solar system. Questions that are interested in scientists are the distance to Mars.
On July 31, 2018, Mars escaped the earth significantly. Credit: S12.Tc.all.kpcdn.net.
The difficulty of calculating distance from the ground
The remoteness of the Earth from other objects in space is measured:
- in astronomical units;
- in light years;
- in parrseca.
Astronomical unit (A.E.) is the average distance between the 3 planet of the solar system and the sun. This value is 149.6 million km and it is used only to measure distances within the solar system.
The light year is calculated as a distance that overcomes the light in 1 year (9,460 trillion kilometers), and the parseka is 3.26 light years. Both astronomical units of measurement are used for calculations on the scale of the universe.
To calculate the distance between Mars and the Earth, they determine where both celestial bodies are located.
But there are several factors complicating these calculations:
- Heavenly bodies move in orbits that have no round, but an elliptical form.
- Mars speed is less than the speed of the Earth.
- The sun is not the center of orbits.
This means that at different points, the celestial bodies will be removed from each other to various distances, i.e. the remoteness of the Earth from the Red Planet does not apply to constant values.
Parallax method for measuring distance to Mars
An important way to calculate cosmic distances is the use of the Paraludlax method, which is as follows:
- 2 points are taken on Earth (it is desirable that they are as far as possible from each other). The segment that connects them is called a basis.
- Star, planet or other celestial body, the distance to which is calculated, is 3 point, forming a peak of an abstract triangle.
- Then the angle value is calculated with a vertex at 3 point, i.e., the opposite base of the angle, which is called the horizontal pararallax.
- Then, with the help of trigonometric formulas, calculations are made, allowing to set the distance to astronomical objects.
For the first time this method was applied in the XVII century. Giovanni Domenico Cassini.
Determination of the distance to stars by the method of horizontal parallax. Credit: Spacegid.com.
Orbit Mars and remoteness at different points
T. K. To unambiguously calculate the exact distance between the Earth and Mars can not, then in astronomy it is customary to talk about the maximum, minimum and medium value.
The smallest distance of 2 planets of the solar system is equal to 54.55 million km. The rapprochement occurs when the land is in the largest point from the Sun, and Mars - in the near-point point to this star. However, over the past 500,000 years, Mars approached the Earth in 2003 at the last 500 million)
The average distance between 2 astronomical objects is 225 million km. Such a number is obtained by calculations between the greatest and lowest remoteness of the Earth and Mars.
The maximum distance between the Earth and Mars is formed when both celestial bodies are located on different sides of the Sun (the value is 401.3 million km).
The distance from the Earth's orbit to the orbit of Mars. Credit: Spacegid.com.
Distance from Mars to Sun
The 4th distance of the planet of the solar system is Mars. Distance from it to the Sun does not apply to constant values. Because of its orbit in the form of an ellipse, the heavenly body is approaching, it is distinguished from the Sun, so the distance between 2 space objects is constantly changing.
For example, the maximum distance equal to 249 million km is observed when Mars is located in Aflia, that is, in the largest point from the star. If Mars is in the perihelion, at the nearest point to the Sun, then the distance between space objects is 206 million km.
The minimum, average and maximum distance from the Sun to Mars. Credit: Cosmosplanet.ru.
How much to fly to Mars from the Earth
Now the red planet is studied from different points of view as:
- possible source of natural resources and minerals;
- territory for relocation from Earth;
- Directions in tourism.
For each item, the flight time of a person to Mars is important. The duration of the flight depends on which points each of the planets is. The shortest is the path in a straight line, when heavenly bodies are as close as possible to each other: the average flight time will take 39 days and 5 hours.
However, in reality it is impossible to implement such a flight, because: K.:
- Mars and the Earth are constantly moving by moving through elliptical orbits of different sizes.
- The gravitational attraction of the Sun has an effect on celestial bodies.
Therefore, scientists designed 3 flight paths to the Red Planet: Parabolic, Gomanovskaya (Elliptic) and hyperbolic.
Possible flight path trajectories. Credit: pich-mol.ru.
The elliptical trajectory is considered the simplest trajectory, which requires minimal fuel costs. Such a route was first proposed in 1925, the Goman trajectory has the form of an elliptical orbit, according to which the aircraft can move between 2 other orbits. Approximate travel time - 150-260 days, depending on the initial speed of the aircraft.
To fly to the red planet for a parabolic trajectory, the initial speed of the spacecraft should reach 16.7 km / s, which is equal to the third space speed. In this case, the estimated flight time is 70 days. The route is built on a half-segment of parabola.
The hyperbolic trajectory assumes that the spacecraft will first fly by Mars, and then changes the direction of movement under the influence of the gravitational field of the red planet. The complexity of the implementation of such a route lies in the fact that the speed of the aircraft must exceed 16.7 km / s.
In modern rockets, chemical engines are applied, which are not able to develop such speeds. This requires ion engines that scientists are actively developing. The total flight time in the hyperbolic trajectory varies from 1 to 1.5 months.
Thus, the choice of the flight path to Mars depends on several factors: the type of engine of the spacecraft; necessary (optimal) flight time; The remoteness of Mars from the Earth.
For all the time of the development of outer space, about 50 missions of automatic probes were sent to Mars. The programs on the manned flight on the red planet are now being developed.
The distance from the ground to Mars is a relative figure that has several values. Wikipedia, answering a question, what distance divisions two planets today, clarifies that it changes every minute and every second. Nature has created a sunny system, obeying the world's forces, and the orbits of celestial bodies are due to their mutual influence. Calling the distance to Mars from the ground variation, most often, speaker or scientist meant that the planet is constantly approaching, it is removed from its closest neighbor, so the distance varies depending on these conditions.
The surface of Mars
Orbit Mars and remoteness at different points
Mars - the seventh largest planet. Because of the strength of his orbit, it is quite significant eccentricity (elongation of the orbit) according to the definition that Great German scientist Johann Kepler gave her.
This brilliant astronome belongs to the priority in the opening of the laws of movement of the planets of the solar system.
Interest in the fourth of the planet of the solar system is not accidental. It is difficult not to be interested in such a neighborhood, especially since the external similarity initially forced to assume the potential opportunity of habitability. These reflections guided many circumstances:
- relatively close object, the mass of which is 10.7% of the mass of the Earth;
- located nearby a neighbor of the planet with an oxygen atmosphere, immediately behind it, with respect to the Sun, the fourth on account;
- The planets of the earth group, more dense in the structure consisting of silicates and metals, have a bark and a mantle;
- Another close neighbor, Venus, is in second place from the Sun, but the likelihood of life on it is much lower than on Mars, due to the huge difference between day and night temperatures;
- The land is located between Venus and Mars, it is likely that a slightly small distance distance could lead to similar processes and the emergence of reasonable creatures;
- A distinctive feature of the remote planets of the earth group is the presence of satellites (the land is the moon, Mars has them as two, Phobos and Demos);
- It doesn't matter that the moon is one of the largest planetary satellites, and the satellites of the war of war in the world of planets-giants would be considered not worthy (they are small in size and improper form), but this creates the possibility of analogy;
- Mars also had pole caps, and spectroscopic observations stubbornly showed the presence of channels on the planet.
Humanity has invariably occupied the problem of Mars's remoteness from the Earth: in kilometers or other units of measurement, it was tried to determine in various ways. The success of this enterprise depended on how much civilization had knowledge and what was the measuring instruments.
The imperfection of the funds used for observation led to the creation of a stable illusion of Mars Marsian's population, which in the artistic literature were depicted by the angels of heaven, then the aggressors occupying the Earth.
Comparison with Earth
Hence, it became for the urgent need to accurately determine the distance. The distance to Mars to the km was constantly changed, and his orbit made the most outstanding minds of the mathematical warehouse to break her head over how much kilometers from the ground to the Red Planet.
Name and distance
The etymology of the name given to the celestial body is related to the features of the color that Mars acquires if you look at it through the earth's atmosphere. The reddish tint in the ancient Greeks was associated with bloodshed and blood, so the bright celestial luminaire was named after the god of the war of Ares (in the ancient Roman mythology - Mars).
Perhaps the final argument in favor of the name of the planet was the presence of two satellites - because the god of war had two sons who were accompanied in any battle. The translation of the names of the sons of a militant deity and the names of satellites of the same name with him planet means "fear and horror".
Magnetic field of land
The inhabitants of the planet Earth has always been interested in how much to fly to Mars (if Mrsian - good creatures) or how quickly can fly here, if we are talking about the attack of aggressors.
Even at the beginning of the last century, Mrsian's imagination was shot on the earth's surface from the supergigant cannon or flew on a rocket, fastened by gasoline. And in that, in another case, the answer to the question of how much to fly to Mars was ambiguous and not entirely correct.
It is worth noting the following:
- The minimum distance from the land due to the powness of the orbit of the Red Planet and the Rotation, which is performed, and also due to the presence of the sun in this whirlpool and three satellites of both lights - also the concept is relative. For example, in 2003, Mars approached Earth by 5 million kilometers, and let it happen for the first time in 50 thousand years, but still it turned out to be possible.
- The ordinary minimum distance between adjacent planets is provided as 54.6 (54.55) million km (in approximate calculations - 55000000 km). At the end of summer, namely from the end of July to August, it can be seen in the sky with a naked eye as a red bright star.
- The average distance from the Earth, obtained by elementary calculations between the maximum and minimum removal, is equal to 225 million kilometers.
- The biggest distance that Mars is reaches in its flight and rotation is 401 million kilometers.
- The minimum and maximum segments of the distance to the Earth shares the giant abyss of 346.4 million km.
Such discrepancies are difficult to understand the person of the uninitiated, about the same way as to imagine the distance that will have to overcome the Jupiter, calculated by almost a tenth of billion km.
Back in 1672, applying the Parallax method, Giovanni Cassini defined an approximate distance between Mars and its planet, observing the object under study from two points and using a geocentric parallax. Measurements from Paris and French Guiana served as starting points for computing, since it was exactly known which between them the removal in km.
The difficulty of calculating distance from the ground
Answer how much the distance between the land and Mars is, it is possible if you know about knowing where they should be. It would be much easier to answer where the planet is now, if the sun did not affect the configuration of its orbit. But even a star, located in his system, does not rotate in a circle, but makes movement along the ellipse. The Red Planet has medium eccentricity.
And if you look at the numbers obtained in the calculations, it turns out that this account goes to millions of conventional human units (in a small space, it is small). The orbits are shifted and towards the Sun, and if we consider that the rate of land is higher, its value is greater, and the orbit is located closer to the luminaire and in short, it becomes clear why Mars has a longer year (686.98 days), and the maximum possible rapprochement occurs rarely.
Distance between planets
Distance in 55.75 million km, referred to as the opposition, comes much more often, but is measured by other numbers. This happens during a certain period of finding both planets on one line with the Sun, when the Earth is in the perigelism, and Mars - in Aplia.
If this happens on the contrary and the sun is located between them, the shortest path that will have to overcome will be 102.1 million km. In this case, the spacecraft will still need to fly for a significant period of time. When both planets are in Afhelia on different directions from their shining, the distance, for astronomical observations and calculations, will be 401.3 million km.
Light year is 9 460 730 472 580 800 km.
Radio signal to Mars and back arrives in 11 minutes, and light flies in 3 minutes. A modern spacecraft flies depending on the speed and mass of different times. The fastest flight, when the weight of the spacecraft was 412 kg, marina-6 was flying back in the past century - 131 days.
Watch the video on this topic.
Facts for reflection
Earth is a huge house for humanity, but if you imagine that the diameter of the planet is 1 meter, then the moon is 30 m, and Mars is 8 kilometers away. Compared to the sun, both planets are tiny, red roughly with a millimeter, and the blue is in a centimeter, and if the star is present in the form of an entrance door, it will be a key well and a tablet.
Martian days are almost equal to the earth, but the year is twice as long. Despite numerous unmanned ships sent to Mars, the flight duration is still impossible to determine clearly, because such a definition depends on the set of factors.
Distance to Sun.
Flights on Mars
The main mystery of our time is how soon will fly on a planet close by cosmic standards, a person. The duration of the flight of the piloted ship is called different - from 23.2 to 33 months or even 4.45 years, but it is impossible to just answer.
This flight will adversely affect the health of the crew. If you take the average distance between the planets as the basis, then this calculation will turn out to be easier if we proceed from the approximate speed of the spacecraft and count the distance in a straight line.
However, in order to give it the acceleration required for the separation from earthly attraction, it is clearly not one kilometer, and the duration of the flight will be much larger than the time and spatial segment. In 2018, several projects were developed at once on the possible development of Mars, but at the moment it is still unclear what to use fuel and how to save it. Currently, project development continues.
To date, there is still no ship with a necessary speed of 18 km / s, which, according to scientists, would allow a successful flight.
But even a century ago only units (mostly science) could imagine what is possible, and now this is taught at school and respond to the exam. Perhaps humanity will find a way to overcome the difference in orbital velocities or opens the fuel, which can be taken with it in an unlimited quantity. Or, as an option, the barrier will finally overcome and exceed the speed of light. All this is at the level of hypotheses, assumptions and hope, and what will happen next - time will show.
Our land is the third planet, remote from the sun. It knows every schoolboy. Following it, Mars is going on - another red ball who caresses not only researchers, but also of any person who is interested in space. This planet is full of its secrets and sometimes so want to visit these edges. But what is the distance from the ground to Mars? Immediately it is worth noting that it is far from small and here there are nuances.
First of all, it is worth noting the speed of rotation of each of the planets around the hot star. But absolutely all of them (including the rest - Venus, Mercury, Jupiter, etc.) move along its "strip". But since the orbit of the earth is inside the circle of Mars, it moves noticeably faster than him. In addition, the orbits do not have the form of the right circle - it is rather an ellipse. It is also worth considering the fact that the sun is not located in the center of the orbits.
Ultimately, the remoteness of the celestial bodies cannot be considered a constant from each other. That is, at some point they are close, and at another time between them the maximum distance. But what way optimally measure the distance to Mars?
Typically, the distance from the ground to a space object is measured in certain units:
- Astronomical units (A.E.);
- light year;
Astronomical unit - Under this concept, the distance from our planet is not enough to the main star. Its value is 149.6 million km. Unit A.E. Used to measure the gaps between space objects within the entire solar system.
Light year is the distance that the light overcomes for the earthly year. In kilometers, this is a lot - 9,460 trillion.
Parsek is equal to 3.26 light years.
However, to measure the distance from the ground to Mars in these units can tell us little, and therefore it is still optimal to use the usual kilometer.
Determine the distance between the red planet and our globe without modern technical equipment it seems impossible. Nevertheless, the Italian Astronoma and Engineer of Giovanni Domenico Cassini in 1672 managed to find out how many kilometers from Mars to Earth. For this, he armed with Parallax method. The term itself with Greek means displacement.
Its essence is as follows:
- On Earth, two any points are taken into account, which are removed from each other to the maximum distance, and the further, the better. Connecting their segments is called a basis.
- Star or any other heavenly body, how to determine the distance will act as 3 points that forms the peak of an abstract triangle.
- A corner is calculated from the top 3 point. It is called as a horizontal pararallax.
- Next, it is necessary to refer to trigonometric formulas, thanks to which the distance to astronomical objects are calculated.
To find out how many km from the ground to Mars Cassini made the calculations, being in Paris, where actually watched the red planet.
Domenico Cassini and Jean Rishe
Measure the distance between the planet, inhabited by people and the red ball, at least theoretically, Italian astronome would not succeed alone. This helped his colleague Jean Rishe. Cassini himself conducted observations from Paris, and Jean was at that time in French Guiana.
The distance between the capital of France and Guiana is known, and therefore it is possible to calculate the distance from one celestial body to another according to the Pararallax method. At the same time, the error in calculations of Cassini was 7%. And this is a good result, if we take into account in which a century the calculation was carried out - XVII.
Is it far to Mars?
So what is the distance from Mars to the Earth? It is not possible to calculate it with accuracy. In this regard, three magnitudes are adopted:
The average length of one planet to another is 225 million km.
This value is obtained by calculating between the maximum and minimum remoteness of Mars from the Earth.
According to our earthly ideas, such a distance to Mars is too much and without a visual example, it is even impossible to imagine that. Unless to refer to the theory. If there is a powerful spotlight on Earth, its light will reach the surface of the red planet after a few more than 12 minutes.
Another example is also interesting - to build a highway from the ground to Mars. If the car go at a speed of 100 km / h, takes at least 257 years. Pretty lasting a trip will turn out. Such examples are easier to present all the scale of our universe.
Among the distance from our land to the Red Planet everything is clear, but what is the minimum value between them. As we know the orbits of the heavenly bodies elliptical. Therefore, at some point, Mars is in extreme intimacy from the sun (perigelium), while the Earth is in the long point (aphelius) orbits.
This is exactly the period when planets are located as close as possible to each other. In this case, the distance to Mars is about 50 million kilometers. If a little more accurate - 54.6 million.
True, we are talking about theoretical calculations, but in reality there was no such proximity. As the story shows, the maximum rapprochement of Mars from Earth, although it happened in 2003, only at a distance of approximately 56 million km, no less.
To do this, it is also worth contacting theoretical calculations. In this case, the desired distance is achieved when the planets are located at the long points of their orbits. In other words, the celestial bodies turn out to be different as the main heating and illuminating stars. Then the distance to Mars will be clearly more than 55 million km, and much. The figure on the results of calculations will increase to 401 million.
Flights to space and research of distant worlds have always been interested in humanity. Another oldest civilizations did telescopes, studied the starry sky, trying to find answers to the questions of Being. They were focused on the sky and they were looking for gods.
The further humanity developed, the more knowledge it was acquired, and interest in space continued to grow. Having visited the moon, a man, of course, wanted to visit the closer to the world closest in the following characteristics - Mars. And scientific development - from Kareet to the hadron collider - over the past 150 years, forces people seriously think about the colonization of other worlds.
Why fly on Mars?
Red Planet is the most obvious object of research for scientists. The main goals of the trip - search for extraterrestrial life, a deeper study of the planet and its history, the preparation of further colonization and the development of the necessary technologies.
Is there or whether there was somewhere except Earth, life is one of the main issues of humanity. Mars is an ideal place to start a search, since it is most similar to the Earth.
The study of the geology of Mars, being on its surface, will help to better understand the history of the planet. So far, the land has grown and formed, Mars has already passed through serious climatic changes and cataclysms. Therefore, I understood Mars, we will understand better and land.
Journey to the Red Planet will give the necessary understanding of the influence of space and interplanetary travels per person. It will be one of the most important steps in the history of mankind.
How much light flies to Mars?
Since the planets are continuously rotating around the Sun, the distance of Mars to the star and the Earth is constantly changing. Accordingly, the light sent from a particular point to the planet at different times will get different amounts of time.
First we will understand how much the light is flying out from the ground. The distance between the planets changes ranging from 55 to 400 million km. At the minimum distance, the light, having a speed of 299,792 km / s, comes from the ground to Mars in 3 minutes, at the maximum - in 22 minutes. Trading between Mars and the Sun is 227,990,000 km. The light from the star comes to the Red Planet about 12 minutes 40 s.
How many flew to Mars?
Despite the fact that Mars did not step by a person's leg, the scientists have long become interested in the planet and since 1964 began to send various devices and devices for a more detailed study of the Red Planet.
The first Mars's study mission was carried out in 1964, when the United States sent the device called Mariner-4 to the orbit of a distant planet. Apparatus flew 228 days . He provided 21 photograph scientists.
Mariner-6 was sent to Mars in 1969. Flying to the Red Planet orbit Little 155 days . As a result of this mission, scientists received data on the atmosphere and temperature on the surface.
Mariner-7 was sent in the same year, acting as a backup option. His path occupied 128 days .
Mariner-9 was sent in 1971, he reached Mars for 168 days . This apparatus became the first artificial satellite of the planet, for its short existence (until October 1972), he managed to create a map of the surface of Mars.
Viking-1 became the first apparatus whose mission was landing on the surface. ON. 304 days .
Viking-2 traveled 333 days and the main task was to find life. With the help of the apparatus, more than 16 thousand pictures were made. The photos were colored, which gave a completely new look at Mars.
Mars Pathfinder, launched in 1996, reached a red planet For 183 days . The device studied the local soil.
MARS EXPRESS - Space Station of the European Space Agency. She was on the road 201 day .
Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter is the first scout, sent in 2005 to find a place where the first colonists could land. The path occupied 210 days .
Maven, sent in 2013, was engaged in the study of the atmosphere of the planet and traveled to it 307 days .
The Soviet Union was not lucky with the study of Mars, there were many unsuccessful starts and breakdowns during the flight process. With Venus, it turned out much more successful. We give the data: the Soviet apparatus Mars-1 flew to Mars 230 days.
Such a significant difference in the duration of flights appears due to the different location of the two planets. And technical development can not seriously affect the time of the way - in most part duration depends on complex mathematical calculations, which consisting in the analysis of the orbits of two celestial bodies.
How many kilometers fly to Mars from the ground?
- The biggest distance between the Earth and Mars Planets can be 401 million km .
- The average distance is about 225 million km.
- The closest distance at which Mars can get closer to Earth - 54.6 million km .
If you take the ideal conditions and the ability to overclock the spacecraft with people on board at the speed of the fastest device from ever launched by humanity - "new horizons", whose speed reached 58 thousand km / h, then just 39 days will be needed on the path .
How much time to fly on Mars with the speed of the aircraft?
For example, if it would be possible to send aircraft to interplanetary travel, then with an average speed of modern liners in 1000 km / h, the path to Mars would take more than 22 thousand days.
It is worth understanding that the solar system has a large number of gravitational points, so it is not possible to run any objects in a straight line. It is necessary to maximize the attraction of the sun, which can easily attract any object neglected from the ground and destroy it. Therefore, certain trajectories were developed for which the flight to the Red Planet is possible. There are several basic ways to get to Mars.
This method is to start the object to meet the celestial body. This method was developed by the German engineer Walter Goman, who offered to send apparatuses against the movement of the planet. But this trajectory has one significant minus - a large amount of fuel is required for braking.
Ballistic capture is the second method that offers the launch of the devices directly in the orbit of Mars again towards the movement, and the braking will occur due to the atmosphere. This method requires more time to implement.
Parabolic trajectory is the most difficult route for technical requirements, but only 80 days will go to overcome it. This method will require a spacecraft to accelerate to 16.7km / s, which is equal to the third space speed. A similar maneuver will require 4 times more fuel than the first method, but due to a sharp reduction in travel time, you can save on meals and on the livelihood of the crew.
Before the organizers of the first mission, Mars is the most difficult problem - not only send the device somewhere far away, but to return it back. The more ship speed will be, the less costs will be required. The minimum for the implementation of a similar operation rate is considered to be 18 km / s.
For the flight, Engineer Robert Zubin offers to use nuclear engines that will require 6 tons of hydrogen from the Earth. And for the way back - carbon dioxide will be used, which is easy to find on Mars. Water can be split into oxygen and hydrogen, and the latter is transformed into methane. All these processes will provide astronauts fuel for the road home.
Under such conditions, the path will last about 9 months, while 17 months the ship will have to be in the orbit of the Red Planet, because it is necessary to immediately catch the ideal location of two celestial bodies. For rapprochement of two planets, you may need up to 500 days.
From here is the following conclusion - The minimum travel time will take 33 months . But do not forget that at this stage of development of technologies, astronauts are seriously harmful to health, being at the ISS for six months. So for the operation for Mars, something completely different level will be required.
How much do you need fuel for flight to Mars?
It is necessary to understand that before calculating the fuel, the route of the spacecraft should be as accurate as possible. Mars all the time moves around the Sun, and engineers need to calculate the flight path, the place where the planet will be at the time of arrival. On the basis of this, the distance is determined that the ship and fuel will fly.
Due to the large number of nuances, it is only possible to approximate the desired reserves for the engine. Engineer Robert Zubrin tried to calculate different options for launching a spacecraft on a nuclear reactor. After conducting research, he came to the conclusion that the path from the Earth to Mars would be required approximately 6 tons of hydrogen .
Major journey to Mars
Cosmos is an incredibly beautiful place, but at the same time he is infinitely dangerous for his researchers. So far, civilization in its short history of space development has learned to defend astronauts only in concerning concerns about short missions, such as finding at the International Space Station (ISS) or a journey to the Moon, but before scientists still have issues of more complex and long flights.
For example, during a potential mission to Mars, the NASA special program foresees five major hazards for astronauts. This program studies and develops the latest ways of protection and equipment that can protect future interplanetary travelers.
Almost everyone knows that, by exposing too much exposure to radiation, a person can seriously damage health, but the levels of dangerous radiation that a person gets on Earth, nothing, if compared with what is to be faced with the first travelers for Mars.
Space radiation is much more dangerous than radiation experienced by people on Earth. Even being on the ISS, a person is being radiated 10 times stronger than the earth, even the Earth, thanks to its magnetic field, and performs a shield on the path of radiation. What will happen to people in open space - no one knows.
Insulation and conclusion
Not all dangers flow from the hidden corners of the space. Psychic man is an extremely fragile mechanism. Scientists have long known that long-term isolation leads to mood drops, violations of the surroundings of the environment, the problems of interpersonal interaction, and can also be a consequence of serious sleep disorders. According to NASA, the change in the consciousness of people with long-term finding in a closed room is inevitable. Therefore, the selection into a similar journey should be extremely tough.
Distance from Earth
If astronauts get to the red planet, they will be on the most distant distance from the Earth than anyone to them. If the moon is at a distance of 380 thousand km from the native planet, then Mars is 225 million km away. And this means that when the first colonizers step on the sands of a distant new world - they will have to be as self-sufficient as possible, because rapid delivery from the ground they should not be expected. Any signal will go about 20 minutes. Scientists still fight over the issues relating to the goods that will be needed to first people in such a journey.
On the way to Marsa, the colonizers will have to face three different gravitational fields: Earth gravity, the absence of almost any attraction in open space and Mars. Scientists still study the impact of such drops on the health of people.
Hostile environment and limited spaces
By the estimates of scientists of the first colonialists to Mars take about 6 months. Cosmos is not at all intended for life, so the conditions and quality of the ship will depend on the lives of people. Therefore, engineers will have to achieve maximum comfort for astronauts, as well as create conditions constantly pushing to be positive and active.
Interesting fact : Ilon Mask, which is imposed on the colonization of Mars, in an interview that he gave during Ted conference in 2015, said that by the end of his life was going to end the colonization of the so-hazing planet. He is going to create a whole city there. For questions in the interviewer, why the mask is all. The latter replied: "I am not trying to be any Savior of mankind, I only try to think about the future and not fall into depression." Recall - all promises given by the engineer at this conference, while they were fulfilled.
In conclusion, I would like to give the assumptions of the great Russian scientist Konstantin Eduardovich Tsiolkovsky on the main stages of space development.
Mars is the most similar to the ground planet in the solar system. And the flight to it is possible today. Projects for the colonization of the mysterious planet are being developed and improved. If civilization ever starts its development of distant worlds, then Mars will be the very first, despite all the difficulties that stand in front of engineers and scientists.
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The first, who was not easy thinking about how much to fly to a man for Mars, but conducted a technical analysis of this opportunity, in 1948 he became Werner von Brown, a scientist, one of the founders of modern rocket-building. After him, the idea of such a flight was considered both the first space powers and private companies.
How much to fly to Mars from the earth kilometers
Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun and the closest to Earth, after Venus. The mission in Venus is complex due to its climatic conditions:
- Huge atmospheric pressure;
- acid rain;
We have no chance there!
The climatic conditions of Mars are most suitable for visiting. Distance between planets on cosmic standards microscopic. But you will have to fly to Mars to Marsa a lot, dozens, and even hundreds of millions of kilometers.
The essence, how much to fly from the land of kilometers largely depends on the specific trajectory - the route of the path. Usually it has the form of a "big arc", which is elegantly connects the start time on Earth with a destination. These arcs are many times longer than the rectilinear distance between the two celestial objects at a certain point in time.
Let's ask me: - How much to fly to Mars?
Suppose that for our calculations we use a simple route in a straight line, where the distance is minimal.
Based on the fact that the planets in the solar system rotate around the Sun, each by its elliptical orbit, with its own unique speed, and the remoteness between two planetary objects will constantly change. Scientific managed to figure out the distance, how much to fly kilometers along the linear trajectory from the ground to Mars:
- The maximum distance will be 401,330,000 km.
- The average path length is 227,943,000 km.
- The minimum that we will need to overcome - in total, then 54,556,000 km.
Planets achieve this minimum distance to each other about two years. And this is the perfect time to launch missions.
Where should Mars be during the launch?
To fly to the destination in a straight line will not work. Earlier it was said that the planets are constantly moving. In this case, the spacecraft simply will not meet the Red Planet on its path, and it will be necessary to catch up with her in theory. In practice, it is impossible for us yet there are no such technologies to pursue the planetary object.
Therefore, for flight you need to choose the launch when the arrival in orbit coincides with the arrival of Mars itself in the same place or come before and allow it to catch up with us.
Practically - this means that you can start your journey only when the planets take the right location. Such a startup window opens every 26 months. At this time, the spacecraft can use what is considered to be the most energy efficient way of which is known as the trajectory of GomaNa but talk later.
Orbital mechanics or how many kilometers need to overcome
Since the elliptical orbits of the Earth and Mars are removed from the Sun at different distances, and the planets move along them at different speeds, the distance between them vary significantly. As noted earlier about every two years and two months of the planet reach their nearest point to each other. This point is called "opposition" when Mars can be at a minimum distance from Earth, from 55.68 to 101.39 million kilometers, depending on what year it is.
Thirteen months after the confrontation, it reaches the connection. What does the red and blue planet mean on the opposite sides of the Sun and as far as possible from each other. Obviously, if we want to get to the goal faster, it is best to schedule departure at the point of confrontation. But not everything is so simple!
A quick journey would be possible if the interplanetary ship followed the direct path. Unfortunately, space travel is much more complicated than a straight line. The orbital mechanics of each of the planets is unique. All the planetary bodies of the solar system are in constant motion and this makes the trip really complex.
So how much do you need to fly kilometers traveling to Mars from the ground? Let's try to figure it out. If you still think that the best way to get to the goal is to wait until two planets be closest to each other, then send the rocket to the target and make a flight. I know, it will not work for several reasons:
- First, the gravity of the Earth will bend the trajectory of any running device. To eliminate this factor, suppose the rocket is placed on a distant orbit around the earth, where the gravity is weak, and the orbital movement is slow, which allows you to neglect both facts. Even then, this rocket is still rotating around the Sun together with the earth, and moves at a speed of about 30 km / s. So, if the rocket continues to fly to the target target, it will retain the speed of the Earth and starts its rotation around the Sun simultaneously moving to the control point of the flight.
- Secondly, if we depart when Mars is closest to the ground, during the time the spacecraft moves towards the goal, the planet will leave for its orbital trajectory long before the ship overcomes the distance.
- Thirdly, the whole system dominated the influence of the gravity of the sun. All objects move along orbits or trajectories, which, according to the laws of Kepler, are parts of conical sections, in this case - ellipses. In general, they are curved.
Going to the cherished goal during the confrontation, in fact the near distance will be much more significant. To overcome it, it is necessary to use a large amount of fuel. Unfortunately, we technically cannot increase the volumes of tanks. Therefore, for flights to Marsa, astrophysics accelerate the ship, and then he flies on the inertia inability to resist the gravity of celestial bodies, which significantly increases the distance as the device flies in a large arc. Such a route represents a half of the segment of the heliocentric orbit around the Sun between Mars and the Earth.
Recall: heliocentric orbit - the elliptical trajectory of the celestial body around the sun.
Let's calculate, the length of the Earth's orbit of the Earth 3.14 A.E. Marsa 4.77 A.E. We need a middle orbit between the planets, half of its length 3.95 AE. Multiply to the distance 1 AE. and rounded.
Recall: one astronomical unit (1 AE) is equal to 149597868 km.
It turns out the approximate distance that will have to overcome it will be about 600 million kilometers. For more accurate calculation, how many flying kilometers use more complex algorithms.
How much time to fly on Mars
To the question of how much you need to fly in time until Mars cannot be answered unequivocally. The flight time depends on a number of factors:
- velocity of the device;
- route path;
- Mutual location of the planets;
- the amount of cargo on board (payload);
- The amount of fuel.
If you take the first two factors as the basis, you can theoretically calculate how much to fly to Mars from the Earth in time. In order for the device to go to a space trip, he needs to take off from the ground and overcome its attraction.
Scientific facts: In order to get into an near-earth orbit, the rocket speed should be equal to at least 7.9 km / s (29 thousand km / h). To send a ship to an interplanetary journey, you need a little more than 11.2 km / s (40 thousand km / h).
On average, travelers make an interplanetary flight at a speed of about 20 km / s. But there are recordsmen.
The fastest apparatus launched by a person in space is the "New Horizons" probe. Neither before, nor after the New Horizons, the interplanetary devices did not fly away from the ground, at a speed of 16.26 km / s. But if we talk about the speed on the heliocentric orbit, then the Earth speed should be added to 16.26 km / s, and we get approximately 46 km / s relative to the sun. It is impressive - 58536 km / h.
Considering these data, the time of the flight duration to Mars in the shortest, direct trajectory will take 941 hours or 39 terrestrial days. To fly along the route corresponding to the average distance between our planets, the person will have 3879 hours already, or 162 days. The duration of the flight at maximum removal will be 289 days.
Let's labeam and imagine that we went to Mars on an airplane in a straight line. If you fly on an airplane 54.556 million kilometers, and the average speed of modern passenger aircraft is about 1 thousand km / h, then it will be necessary to 545560 hours, or 22731 day and 16 hours. And even impressive it looks in years of almost 63 years. And if we fly by ellipse, then this figure will increase 8-10 times this is an average of 560 years.
How many earthly days of clock fly to a man to Mars
How much time do you need to fly to a person to Mars from the ground? If you dream to ever become a cosmonaut in the first manned flight, please be ready for a long journey. Scientists suggest that the trip there and back will take about 450 terrestrial days on average 10800 hours or 1.2 years.
Forecasts: how much time to fly
The most important variable on how much time it takes a person to get to Mars is obvious - how fast are you going? Speed determining factor. The faster we can overclock the ship, the faster we will arrive at the destination. Flight time on the fastest rocket on the route with the shortest linear distance between the planets will be no more than 42 terrestrial days.
Scientists launched a whole bunch of interplanetary modules, so we have an approximate idea of how long it takes when using modern technologies.
So in the middle cosmic prostses you can get to Mars from 128 to 333 days.
If we try to send a person today, the best thing we could really do is especially considering that we will send a large manned ship, and not just a probe with an SUV. Collect an interplanetary ship in the orbit of the Earth, fill it with fuel and send it to the flight.
Technical magnate Ilon Mask, heading Spacex, says his interplanetary transport system will be able to cope with the trip in just 80 days, and in the end will be able to travel in just 30 days.
The countries of the whole world conduct research how much person will take place to Mars. The study in the 90s in theory was assumed to send a person in 2000. The minimum path would take 134 days in one direction, the maximum 350. It was assumed that the flight would take place with a crew from 2 to 12 people.
According to the calculations of the companies Mars One, travel time will take about 210 days or 7-8 months
According to NASA, an interplanetary journey with people will need about six months to get to Mars, and six more months, to return. In addition, astronauts have to spend on the surface of 18-20 months before the planets are again leveled for a return trip.
Now about how to actually get to our neighboring planet and how much time will take.
How much to fly to Mars is considered pretty simple: about the earth we give the pulse to overclocking and go to the ellipse, which concerns both orbits. Avenue to Mars again, we give the impulse to acceleration and go to its orbit. Flight time can be calculated according to the third law of Kepler.
Why fly so long
Why we can not get now faster:
- The first reason is huge distances. The minimum distance is calculated not even by millions, but tens of millions of kilometers. Let me remind you that the maximum distance to the planet is 401330000 km.
- The second reason is technological. The most common type of engines used for flights into space is a chemical rocket jet engine. It is able to disperse the spacecraft to very high speeds. But there are such engines for no more than a few minutes, the reason for this is too much fuel consumption. Almost all his rocket supply spends to break away from the surface and overcome the power of attraction of the planet. Take the additional stock of fuel today is not possible for technical reasons.
How to get to Mars with the least fuel
How much fuel need to fly to Mars? The most important aspect of interplanetary flights is fuel supply on the rocket. When using chemical rocket engines, and there are no real alternatives to them, there is a lot of fuel.
- First, it is due to the need to overcome the power of attraction of the Earth. And the greater the mass of the ship - the more energy you need to take up, and accordingly fuel.
- Secondly, even if you choose the most economical flight route, the rocket must be scored at least 11.59 km / s. In terms of the usual units of measurement, it is 41724 km / h.
In addition to the speed set, when approaching Marsa approaches the spacecraft, it is necessary to reset it, and it is possible to achieve this, if you start the engines, and to spend fuel accordingly. We must not forget about the work of life support systems, because the flight is assumed to participate in people.
You can fly to Mars spending less time, but you will need to spend more fuel. This is due to the need to increase the pace of flight. In this case, and the fuel consumption will increase.
The main task of engineers - how to get to Mars with the least amount of fuel was solved in 1925 Walter Gomanne. The essence of his method is instead of directing the rocket directly to the planet, it is necessary to increase its orbit, as the result it will follow the larger orbit around the Sun than the Earth. In the end, the rocket cross the orbit of Mars - at the very moment when he too will be there.
Such a method of movement, engineers call the orbit of minimum energy transmission - using it to send spacecraft from Earth to Mars with the least fuel.
How faster flourity - Possible routes
There are several paths that can be reached before destination. There are three of all three, they all differ only in two parameters - speed of movement in outer space and time in flight.
The most economical, but the longest option is the elliptical trajectory of flight. And also is called "Gomanovskaya", in honor of the German scientist Valtera Goman. In this case, the spacecraft will take place on the orbit of Mars, moving along the ellipse. To fly to such a route, you will need to disperse the rocket to 11.59 km / s. Time in the way will be 259 days, as it is necessary to overcome a greater distance than when moving on two other trajectories. To move to the simplest "Gomanovskaya" trajectory, it will be necessary to increase the tempo of the movement of the near-earth satellite by 2.9 km per second.
During the development of space, scientists sent several satellites to study precisely on the Goman trajectory. These were both Soviet apparatus and American.
The second option is the parabolic path trajectory. To access it, you will need to disperse the ship up to 16.6 km / s. Time in the way will be only 70 days. In this case, the fuel consumption is greatly increasing to overclock the rocket, as well as for braking before landing. Scientists assess the growth of energy costs when flying along a parabolic route by 4.3 times, if we compare it with elliptic.
Parabolic trajectory implies the movement of the device along the form of a parabola.
Despite the increasing costs of fuel, the flight along the parabolic route is very attractive for scientists. First of all, due to the reduction in the cost of protection for the crew from radiation, as well as on the reserves of provisions, oxygen and other means of life support.
The latter of possible trajectories is hyperbolic. For flight along this trajectory, the device must be accelerated to speeds exceeding the third cosmic (16.7 km / s). When moving along the hyperbolic trajectory, the rocket should be as if flying by Mars, changing the direction of movement, hitting its gravitational field. Line of flight in this case is similar to hyperbola. The landing becomes possible if you start the engines to brake next to the planet.
Ideas to reduce flight time
Depending on the initial flight speed from the Earth (from 11.6 km per second to 12 km per second), the duration of flight to Mars varies from 260 to 150 days. To reduce the time of the interplanetary flight, you need to increase the speed, which will affect the reduction of the arc length of the route of the path. But at the same time, the meeting with Mars increases: C 5.7 to 8.7 km per second, which complicates the flight to the need to make a safe reduction to the release of Martian orbit or to land on the surface. In this case, if we want to get faster we need new engines to drive the ship and manage to slow down.
To speed up the flight time, you need to use other types of rocket engines, such as electrical jet rocket engines and even nuclear.
The plus of electric motors is the possibility of long-term work, up to several years. But the craving such devices develop very weak. Even to break away from the ground on such a rocket so far it is impossible. In outer space, electrical engines can develop a very high speed. Higher than existing chemical engines. True time he will take it up to several months. For interstellar flights, such a development is still suitable, but it is impractical to Mars to fly with such an engine.
If the ion engines are not suitable for us, then what future technologies can reduce the time on the way to several days?
There are the following ideas on how to speed up the flight on Mars:
- The use of nuclear missiles whose base is the heating of liquefied fuel, and then throwing it out of the nozzle at very high speed. It is assumed that the nuclear missile can reduce the flight time for Mars to about 7 months. Some scientists believe that modern nuclear energy engines will be able to reduce the trip to 39 days. Can you imagine how quickly will this spacecraft fly? Nuclear rocket jet engines have not yet entered the ground prototypes, but scientists are constantly working to implement such a project.
- The use of magnetism. Magnetism technology is based on the use of a special electromagnetic device, which will ionize and heat the rocket fuel, turning it into ionized gas or plasma, which will accelerate the spacecraft. With this method, the flight can be reduced to 5 months.
- Using antimatter. This is the most strange of ideas, although it may be the most successful. Antimatter particles can only be obtained in particle accelerator. A huge amount of energy is released when the particles collide and antiparticles. This can be used in many useful things. According to preliminary calculations, the ship will achieve the goal, only 10 milligrams of antimatter will be required. Nevertheless, it will be necessary to spend at least 250 million dollars on the production of 10 mg of antimatter. Flight to Mars using antimatter will take only 45 days!
How much will the journey cost?
In addition to flying for a very long time, it is also an estimated event, questions arise how much it is worth flying to Mars.
One assessment of the costs associated with sending people was made with the administration of George Bush-senior. The range varied from 80 to 100 billion dollars. Later research, narrowed it up to 20-40 billion dollars.
According to the billionaire Ilona Mask, the flight will cost less than 500,000 dollars in the end, it is not so much. He says that the price may eventually drop to 100 thousand dollars. And you should not worry about the reverse trip, because, according to Ilona, it will be free.
Why fly on Mars
There are many reasons for organizing such a mission.
The first is research. Mars on many signs similar to Earth, and according to scientists, before the planets had the same atmosphere, and probably life. Large-scale studies should answer the question of whether life is present now, whether the planets really are so similar, and for what reason he became a desert world. Photos show a lot of interesting and inexplicable phenomena on the surface, which humanity also breaks to learn.
The second reason is the colonial. There are theories for which you can artificially recreate the atmosphere. Consequently, develop the ecosystem. This means that in the future, earth plants will be able to grow, live animals and of course people.
The third reason is human curiosity. This is the power that allowed the path from ancient people with primitive workers of labor to civilization capable of launching research satellites into remote corners of the Universe. One example of such a mission was landing for an automatic device to the surface of a comet!
How many unresolved problems of flight
In addition to a long trip, the piloted mission represents many other difficulties:
Scientists are concerned that astronauts will be exposed to cosmic rays and other radiation during a long journey. They are also concerned about the physical effects that cosmonauts are tested with a long exposure of low gravity medium and weak illumination.
Perhaps the most difficult factor for predicting is a psychological effect that cosmonauts may experience as a result of isolation. No one is definitely sure which mental stress will be caused due to the lack of contact with friends and family, which cosmonauts leave behind.
Other obstacles of such a piloted mission include: fuel, oxygen, water and food for cosmonauts.
Flight on Mars is a technically very complex and expensive idea. Those who are the first to step on the surface of the Red Planet, accelerate to incredible speeds, and will overcome millions of kilometers. So that they are safe and preserved to the point of destination, scientists need to come up with the means of protection against cosmic radiation, as well as to work on creating and improving life support systems. It is necessary to accurately calculate the mass of the ship and payload, select the optimal flight route.
It is very difficult to overestimate the value of the piloted mission. The possibility of flight directly depends on the level of technology development, which is continuously growing. The best minds are working on projects for the implementation of such a mission. And research work carried out on the surface will allow you to answer a lot of questions that have been expanding humanity for a long time.