Candidiasis is an infectious disease caused by yeast-like mushrooms belonging to the genus Candida. Candida enters the normal microbial flora of the body, even from completely healthy people and breeds, not causing any harm. With the appearance of favorable conditions, the fungus begins to multiply and provokes the development of various violations.
Candidiasis includes various types of infections, ranging from the highest surface and ending with the system level. Surface infections caused by Candida are responsible for local inflammation, which is often associated with strong discomfort. Rare, but more dangerous system infections that can cause such complications such as lung abscesses, endocarditis or meningitis.
Types of candidias
The protective functions of the body, the natural intestinal microflora and the vagina in the norm inhibit the growth of Candida Albicans. As a rule, it does not arise unpleasant symptoms, which indicate its presence in the body. The fungus is activated when the resistance of the body decreases.
The development of candidiasis contributes to the following factors:
- long or uncontrolled antibiotics,
- Sugar diabetes and other disorders of the endocrine system,
- hormonal changes during pregnancy and menstruation;
- Weakening of the protective functions of the body or infectious diseases.
Table - types of candidiasis, causes and symptoms
Type of candidiasis
Causes of development
Signs of the vaginal candidiasis are concluded in the appearance of a strong itching on the mucous membrane of the genital organs, irritation and edema, burning in urination. Also appears discomfort at sexual acts.
It occurs as acute or chronic inflammation and leads to frequent relapses. The causal factors consist in the irrational use of antibacterial drugs and the pathological course of a newborn period. The symptoms of thrush in the mouth in the child may appear against the background of intestinal infections, reducing immunity and injuries of the mucous membrane.
Symptoms of oral candidiasis are concluded in the appearance of plaque on the mucous membrane of the oral cavity, as well as in redness and edema of the back of the tongue. In the launched cases, redness and infiltration of lips, the presence of erosion and severe pain are observed. Small cracks are covered with a gray-white film.
With the weakening of the local and general immunity, the mushrooms of the genus Candida are attached to the intestinal epithelium, then penetrate into its thickness and turn into a filamentary form. With a strong suppression of cellular immunity, the candids fall into the bloodstream and propagate by the body, which leads to visceral candidiasis (damage to the liver, pancreas).
Diagnosis of candidiasis
The thrush in the mouth in adults and children is diagnosed only when a combination of characteristic clinical manifestations and positive additional survey results. With the defeat of the genitals, relevant studies are conducted in the office of the urologist and the gynecologist.
Diagnosis of candidiasis includes the following tests:
- microscopic examination of the mucous membrane;
- serological reaction (definition of antibodies);
- Polymerase chain reaction.
Based on the results obtained, the diagnosis and the appointment of an individual treatment scheme is carried out. Self-medication in this case is unacceptable, since it can lead to the development of complications.
Treatment of Candidoza
The treatment of oral candidiasis is carried out in several directions:
- identification of risk factors and their elimination (treatment of background diseases);
- antifungal therapy (in the presence of clinical signs of candidiasis);
- desensitizing therapy;
- restoration of oral microbiocenosis;
- Strengthening immunity.
Antifungal therapy is the first step in the treatment of patients with candidium stomatitis. Most often local forms are used - solutions, gels, aerosols, creams, etc. The similar approach is used in the case of damage to the genitals.
We offer a list of effective preparations for the treatment of candidiasis. The rating is based on the safety of drugs and price-quality ratios. Preliminary consultation with the doctor is the key to speedy recovery.
№1 - "Fluconazole" (ozone Ltd. and Obolenskaya FP, Russia).
Antifungal drug, which is a selective inhibitor of sterols in cellular structures of the pathogen. It is assigned to conduct systemic treatment of candidiasis in men and women with severe forms of mycoses.
№2 - "Miramistin" (INFAMED, Russia).
Antiseptic solution for local applications. It has a wide range of action, suppressing hospital strains resistant to antibiotics. Produced in bottles byfifty
№3 - Pimafucin (Astellas Pharma Inc., Netherlands).
Vaginal suppositories (macrolide antibiotics) with antifungal action. Appointed in gynecology for local application.
№4 - "Flukostat" (Farmstandart-Lexers, Russia).
Antifungal drug based on fluconazole. It is prescribed with complicated or generalized forms of the disease, mainly for the treatment of bowel candidiasis. Available in packing 1, 2 and 7 (manufacturer: Vertex, Russia) capsules.
№5 - "Exoderil" (Sandoz, Austria).
Solution for external use based on naphtyphine hydrochloride. Effective against gram-positive and gram-negative microorganisms causing bacterial infections.
№6 - "Diflycan" (Pfizer, France).
Antifungal capsules, developed on the basis of fluconazole. The triazolic agent has a high activity against most pathogens of fungal infections.
№7 - "MICOKOERL" (Pharmac, Russia).
Antifungal solution containing naphtyphine hydrochloride. Used to treat Candidose skin, mucous and oral cavity
№8 - "Lamizil" (Novartis Pharma, Switzerland).
Cream for outdoor use based on terbinefin hydrochloride. It is prescribed with yeast infections of the skin, inguinal folds and multicolored deprived.
Prevention of the development of candidiasis
To avoid the appearance of candidal infection, it is important to comply with the main preventive measures:
- use condoms during sexual intercourse;
- refuse products containing sugar;
- to live an active lifestyle;
- provide regular night rest;
- Avoid stress;
- comply with personal hygiene;
Long-term contact with synthetic substances prevents natural skin transpiration. Prevention of oral candidiasis in adults and children is possible in compliance with certain prophylactic measures: regular cleaning of teeth, timely treatment of dental diseases and strengthening immunity.
Literature:https: //bme.org/index.php/andidosishttps: //www.rlsnet.ru/mkb_index_id_635.htmhttpps: //www.vidal.ru/encyclopedia/infektsionniebolesni/candidiozhtttps: //www.vidal.by/patsientam/ ENTSIKLOPEDIYA / GYNECOLOGY / VLAGALISHNIYI-KANDIDOZ.HTML
The fungus of the genus Candida is present in the body of each person. If its number corresponds to the norm, we coexist peacefully with it and get along. But as soon as the fungus begins to multiply rapidly, we begin to experience a number of unpleasant symptoms, which cannot be ignored.
The late diagnosis and absence of the treatment of candidiasis (or thrush) can provoke the development of allergies, cervicitis, urethritis, cystitis, dermatitis, infertility, autoimmune diseases, intestinal problems.
Consider a few simple tests that will help at home to reveal candidiasis.
Home Test No. 1 on Candidiasis
To pass the test you will need a glass with water.
1. After awakening (before you eat something or drink) Slove a small amount of saliva into a glass with water.
2. After 30 minutes Rate the result:
- Saliva floating on the surface of water Indicates that the content of the Candida fungus in the body corresponds to the norm.
- Saliva, threads descending on the bottom of the glass or the remaining in suspension, He indicates an excess fungquet in the body.
- Saliva, tempering at the bottom of the glass, Indicates the presence of candidiasis, which requires immediate appeal to the medical institution.
To get the most reliable result, during the test, you must follow certain rules:
- Do not use dairy products per day before the test, since they are made of saliva, which is fraught with a false positive result.
- Drink more water, because dehydration also takes off saliva.
How does this test work?
With intensive reproduction of the Candida fungus from a large intestine moves into a small bowel, then in the stomach, the esophagus and the oral cavity. As a result, a white flare is formed in the language and inner surface of the cheek, which, mixing with saliva, sinking in a glass, as heavier than water.
Test number 2 on candidiasis
We suggest you to answer "yes" or "no" for 11 questions and evaluate the result on the ballroom system (for the answer "No" you get 0 points).
Ready? Let's proceed.
- During the last month, did you take antibiotics or other antibacterial drugs? (yes - 4 points)
- Do you worry repeated vaginal infections or the infection of the urogenital system? (yes - 3 points)
- You are unhealthy, but you can't find the reason for disassembly? (yes - 2 points)
- Do you have a menstrual cycle disorders, hormonal disorders, whether the body temperature decreased, has chronic fatigue appeared and the thrust for sweet? (yes - 2 points)
- Are you superimensitive to tobacco smoke, flavors of spirits and other smells? (yes - 2 points)
- Do you have a worsening memory or concentration of attention? Can you say that in recent times have become less collected and more scattered? (yes - 2 points)
- Have you been a long course of receiving prednisone or other steroid drugs? Did you receive contraceptive pills for more than 3 years in a row? (yes - 2 points)
- Does your body respond to some unpleasant symptoms? (yes - 1 point)
- Do you suffer with meteorism, stool disorder (diarrhea or constipation), abdominal pain? (yes - 1 point)
- You have the following symptoms: skin itching, burning, excessive dry skin, rash? (yes - 1 point)
- After the morning awakening, do you notice a white flare in the language? (yes - 1 point)
- If you scored no more than 10 points, you do not have problems with fungus candidate.
- If you counted 11 to 13 points, you have certain problems with reproduction of the Candida fungus.
- The result exceeding 13 points, with a large probability indicates candidiasis.
- Did you score from 0 to 8 points? You have no reason for concern.
- If the resulting result is within 8 to 11 points, this means that the candidate fungus is intensively multiplied in your body.
- If you scored more than 11 points, consult a doctor, because it is likely that you have candidiasis.
Of course, this test cannot be considered informative and accurate 100%, but if you have other symptoms of the candidiasis, do not slow down with the appeal to the gynecologist or urologist, which on the basis of laboratory research will make an accurate diagnosis.
Symptoms of candidiasis (thrush)
Symptoms of thrush in women:
It should be remembered that often the vaginal candidiasis proceeds against the background of other infectious diseases, for example, chlamydia and genital herpes.
Men's symptoms for men:
- Inflammation of the head of the penis, as well as the extreme flesh;
- Education on the sexual member of whitening rash;
- Itching and burning in the field of genitals;
- purulent discharge with an unpleasant smell (in the case of inflammation in the urethra).
Treatment and Prevention of thrush
Candidiasis is a disease that does not only deliver a lot of unpleasant sensations, but also treatlessly treatable. You can get rid of the thrush, but after a month she will again give themselves to know.
Therefore, maximum attention should be paid primarily to the prevention of candidiasis, and for this it should be aware of the reasons that provoke intensive reproduction of the candidate fungus.
The main causes of candidiasis
How to treat thrush at home?
The most important thing is no self-medication! You can treat the milk and need to treat the thrush, but only in accordance with the recommendations of the attending physician!
We will tell about how to speed up the process of recovery during candidiasis and prevent the reproduction of the genhib's candidate in the body.
1. Reduce the use of sweets and carbohydrates
Sugar-containing products and carbohydrates contribute to the reproduction of the fungus of the genus Candida. As a result, a person begins to consume more such products, it increases the thrust for sweet, and this is fraught not only by the rapid reproduction of the fungus, but also a set of excess weight.
Dietitian Zoya Kharcomb has developed a special diet for sick milk. She offers:
- Fully abandoning products containing simple carbohydrates: sweet fruits, sugar and saham-containing products, white rice, pasta and bakery products.
- Minimize the use of canned foods.
- Refuse all sorts of refueling and sauces, which includes vinegar.
- Do not drink alcohol.
Diets must be adhered to within 10 days against the background of anti-grapple therapy.
In addition, it is recommended to exclude coffee from the diet, black tea, mushrooms, cheeses, salty, smoked and dairy products.
2. Turn on the ration of antifungal products
Some products have antifungal properties, so they are called natural antibiotics.
When candidiasis should enrich the menu by the following products:
- Garlic and onions.
- Spices: clove, cinnamon, ginger.
- Vegetable oils: coconut and olive.
- Red berries.
- Cruscle vegetables and greens.
3. Take probiotics and prebiotics
Probiotics (lactobacillia and bifidobacteria) are microorganisms that have favorably affecting the host of the intestine.
Probiotics are contained in such products:
- Sickles without vinegar.
- Green olives.
- Efficiency products: yogurt, kefir, ryazhenka.
- Bitter chocolate.
The task of prebiotics is to stimulate the work of useful bacteria in the intestine. Products-prebiotics include:
- Milk products.
- Cabbage of all varieties.
- Onion and garlic.
- Whole wheat bread.
4. Forget about self-medication
We are so spoiled with a huge number of information that you are able to diagnose yourself and prescribe treatment. We are about and without accepting antibiotics without thinking about the consequences. Therefore, it should not be surprised that one day, after the next session of self-medication, you will have signs of candidiasis.
The same problem may occur with incorrect admission of oral contraceptives, which change the hormonal vaginal background and pH of the vagina, which leads to the oblasting of the vaginal environment and an increase in the risk of developing candidosis.
5. Refuse douching
Drying in particular and the use of gels and sprays for intimate hygiene generally adversely affect the state of the pH of the vagina.
Regular scriptures without medical testimony lead to the development of bacterial vaginosis, candidiasis, endometritis, adnexitis and endometriosis due to the washing out of a normal vaginal flora. Recall that the recovery of the flora takes about 24 - 72 hours, so if you spend a similar procedure daily or every three days, then a high risk that in the end you will come across the active reproduction of the conditionally pathogenic flora and the increase in the growth of beneficial lactobacilli.
But that's not all.
During the long-term study of scientists from the University of Texas, the results of which were published in the Journal of Infectious Diseases, it was revealed that Slowing increases the risk of infection with a person's papilloma virus by 26%, and ovarian cancer - by 40%.
6. Strengthen immunity
As soon as the protective forces of the body weaken, the thrush immediately makes itself felt the discharge, itching and burning.
Fit right, more walk, exercise, give the level of stress to a minimum, have a fully rest to strengthen the immune system and forget about health problems.
And if nevertheless, the body has failed, sign up for a reception to a specialist, remembering that self-treatment is a loss of time and money.
Tests on candidiasis
Vaginal candidiasis is classified depending on the exact localization of the lesion, the nature of its flow, the frequency of re-exacerbations, the defeat of other organs and the anatomical structures of the small pelvis.
Depending on the frequency of exacerbations, the vaginal candidiasis is divided into the following forms:
- Acute. The episodes of thrush in the patient are rare, that is, the absence of frequent relapses. The total number of registered cases over the past 12 months - 3 or less.
- Chronic, recurrent. More than 4 repeated episodes of the vaginal thrush with severe symptoms within 1 year.
Based on the exact localization of the inflammatory process in the sex paths of a woman, pathology is divided into:
- Vaginitis - local inflammation of the mucous membrane of the vagina.
- Vulvovaginitis is a combination of damage to the vagina and vulva.
- Cervicitis - inflammation of the inner shell of the cervix.
Uncomplicated vaginal candidiasis
The diagnosis of the uncomplicated form of the disease is established subject to all the following criteria:
- The course of the disease is light or moderate.
- Revealed pathogen when taking a vaginal smear - C. Albicans. .
- The absence of violations of the work of the immune system and diseases that reduce the protective forces of the body.
Complicated vaginal candidiasis
About complicated form of the disease, in the presence of at least one of the following factors:
- Clinically severe course of the disease.
- The causative agent of the disease identified in a bacteriological study - genus mushrooms Candida. , distinctive OT C. Albicans. , eg: C. glabrata. , C. Tropicalis, C. Parapsilosis, C. Crusei, C. Lusitaniae.
- Weakening of immunity, for example, with long-term intake of glucocorticosteroids, poorly controlled diabetes mellitus or against pregnancy.
- Recognizing defeat of other small pelvis organs.
Symptoms of thrush
Symptoms of candidal infection can vary by intensity and include the following:
- Itching and irritation of the vagina and vulva;
- Sensation of burning, especially during sexual intercourse or urination;
- redness and edema vulva;
- soreness of the vagina;
- vaginal rash;
- watery vaginal discharge;
- thick curls of white and odorless.
Complications of candidiasis vagina
The absence of full-fledged treatment, the recurrent flow and disruption of the work of the immune system contribute to the development of complications of the candidiasis. In most cases, the inflammatory process in the adjacent tissues and the defeat of other small pelvis organs occurs.
Inflammatory lesions of other sexual organs
Endometritis is inflammation of the inner sheath of the uterus, endometrial. This complication occurs in women after genera or instrumental methods for diagnosing the uterine cavity, at which endometrial trauma occurs. Most often is one of the earliest complications, since the vagina directly communicates with the uterus through her neck.
The clinically development of endometritis is accompanied by a progressive deterioration in the state of the woman, the abundance of curl discharge from the vagina, the increased pain and its movement from the crotch area in the pelvic region. The general signs of the inflammatory process in the body are also exacerbated: the body temperature increases, headache, weakness, sometimes - nausea with vomiting increases.
Salpingitis is inflammation of the mucous membrane of the uterine (phallopyan) pipe, which informs the uterus cavity with the abdominal cavity and ovaries. It may be single or two-way (Fig. 1). Often combined with an oofhoritis - inflammation of the ovaries, which is often used by the term "SalpingOForit". Clinically, these states are not much different from endometritis, with the exception of pain, which can spread to iliac areas.
The danger of this group of complications is to violate the reproductive function, namely, in increasing the risk of ectopic pregnancies and female infertility in the future. They may be due to both direct damage to organs and a violation of the patency of the uterine pipes, which is why the fertilization of the egg or its penetration into the uterus becomes impossible.
A rare complication option is the intrauterine infection of the fetus. At the same time, a spontaneous interruption of pregnancy (spontaneous abortion) can occur, as well as the occurrence of frozen pregnancy - the termination of the development of the fetus and its death.
Also, against the background of the vagina candidiasis, the wagon stenosis is possible - deformation and narrowing its lumen with the loss of natural elasticity. The reason is the substitution of the epithelial tissues of the connective, Rubatova. The main symptoms are pain in sexual acts.
Defeat of the urethra system
In the thrush of the vagina, the infection can also be distributed into the urethra (urethra) and the bladder, causing their inflammation - urethritis and cystitis, respectively.
Typical signs of urethritis become urinary disorders, namely: the appearance of cutting or pain during the emptying of the bladder, the increase in the urinary urges, the appearance of blood impurities in the urine, the symptom of the "sticking" of the edges of the urethra.
The characteristic features of cystitis are: severe pain, especially at the end of urination ,, cutting into the pubic area, the feeling of a non-footproken bladder immediately after urination, purulent or bleeding impurities in the urine visible to the naked eye. It is also often observed an increase in body temperature and moderate, constant stupid pain in the pubic area.
When to consult a doctor
Consult with your doctor if:
- Symptoms of fungal infection appeared for the first time.
- You are not sure that the infection is fungal (candidoid).
- Symptoms do not pass after treatment with antifungal vaginal creams or candles.
- There are other symptoms.
Vaginal fungal (yeast) infection cause fungi genus Candida ( Candida. ). The vagina normally contains a balanced combination of microflora, including candids and bacteria. Lactobacilles are isolated by acid that prevents excess growth of fungi. This balance can be broken and able to lead to candidiasis. A large number of fungal microflora causes vaginal itching, burning sensation and other classic signs of yeast infection.
Excessive growth of fungi may result:
- the use of antibiotics that suppress vaginal lactobacillia and change the pH (acid-alkaline balance) of the vagina;
- uncontrollable diabetes;
- imminent immunity;
- The use of oral contraceptives or hormone therapy, which increases the concentration of estrogen.
Candida albicans - The most common type of fungi causing yeast infection. Sometimes other candids are also caused, but standard treatment is usually directed against Candida Albicans. An infection caused by other types of fungi is more difficult to treat, and it requires more aggressive therapy. A yeast infection may occur after some sexual activity, especially with orally genital sexual contact. However, candidiasis is not considered a sexually transmitted infection, because even sexually inactive women can develop.
The factors that increase the risk of yeast infection include:
- Antibiotic therapy. Candidiasis is distributed among women taking antibacterial drugs. A wide spectrum antibiotics that kill a row of bacteria also destroy the normal vaginal microflora, which leads to excessive growth of fungi.
- Elevated level of estrogen. A yeast infection is more common among women with increased concentration of female hormones. This can be observed in pregnant women who receive contraceptive tablets or receiving estrogenic hormonal therapy.
- Uncontrollable diabetes mellitus. Women with diabetes, poorly controlling blood sugar, are subject to greater risk of candidia development, rather than patients who observe self-control.
- Weed immunity. Women with immune system, weakened corticosteroid therapy or HIV infection, are more prone to the development of candidiasis.
- Sexual activity. Although candidiasis does not belong to sexual infections, sexual contacts are capable of spreading candida fungi.
Diagnosis of candidiasis
The diagnosis of fungal infection is raised on the basis of the results of the following procedures:
- Anamnesis. The attending physician collects information about vaginal or sex infections in the past patient.
- Gynecological examination.
- Study of smear from the vagina. It is carried out to determine the type of fungi, caused yeast infection. This will assign more efficient therapy in the event of a relapse.
Treatment of fungal infection
Candidose treatment depends on the availability of complications.
With a weak or moderate manifestation of symptoms, with rare cases of fungal infection, the attending physician may assign the following:
- Short course of vaginal medicines. Antifungal therapy (butoconazole, clotrimazole, miconazole, terkonazole) can be used in the form of creams, ointments, tablets and candles. The course of treatment continues one, three or seven days. Side effects may include a slight burning or irritation. The type of contraception during the treatment period must be changed to alternative, since candles and creams are produced on an oil basis, and they can weaken the protection of condoms and diaphragms.
- One-time oral admission of antifungal medication (fluconazole). Serious symptoms may require two one-time doses with a pause of 3 days.
- Neuter-free vaginal antifungal candles and creams. They are effective in most cases and safe during pregnancy. Treatment usually lasts for seven days. It should be re-consoled to a doctor if the symptoms are preserved after treatment or returned within 2 months.
Treatment of complicated fungal infection of the vagina may include:
- Long course of vaginal drugs. A yeast infection is successfully treated with azole rate for 7-14 days. Azole Release Forms: Vaginal Cream, Ointment, Tablets or Candles.
- Oral medicines in several dosages. The attending physician may prescribe 2-3 doses of fluconazole simultaneously with vaginal treatments. However, fluconazole is not recommended for pregnant women.
- Preventive intake of fluconazole. The attending physician may assign regular reception of fluconazole (once a week for 6 months) to prevent the repeated candidiasis. This decision can be made in the case of frequent relapses of fungal infection. Prevention begins only after the total course of treatment, which takes up to 14 days.
Usually, sexually partner is not necessary antifungal treatment, but it may be necessary if he has signs of fungal infection (inflammation of the head of the penis - Balanit). As an alternative to treatment, the sexual partner can apply a condom during sex.
Prevention of candidiasis
To reduce the risk of vaginal candidiasis:
- Use cotton underwear and free skirts / trousers.
- Avoid tight underwear and tights.
- Immediately replace wet clothes (swimsuit, sports form).
- Avoid hot and very hot baths.
- Avoid uncontrolled antibiotics, for example, with a cold or other viral infections.