77 years ago, a record was recorded in the Northern Capital, which for these decades remained the record. The air temperature in the city was dropped to -35.6 ° C. This happened January 17, 1940.
By the way, there are evidence that this figure was still broken by the century earlier (January 11, 1883) and amounted to a difference of three tenth of degrees (-35.9 ° C). However, this is not confirmed.
Interestingly, the Moscow Temperature "Frosty Record" was recorded on January 17, 1940. True, in the capital, the thermometer column and at all reached the mark in -42.2 ° C.
Spb.aif.ru talks about the most interesting weather records of the country and the world.
Russian Pole Cold
If we talk about low temperatures, then several points on the map are fighting for the title of "Cold Pole" in our country. So, the village of Oymyakon in Yakutia is considered one of the harsh places on the planet. This status sounds "solid" when taking into account that the factor that there is a permanent population in the village! About 500 people live there.
In addition to the fact that the Oymyakon is located on the amateur latitude (63.27 degrees), it is also located in the basin, so cold air flops here. The absolute fixed temperature in this place is -64.3 degrees. And according to unofficial data in 1938, in the village of Column, the thermometer was descended to the record for Russia -77.8 ° C. This place is also famous for the strong temperature drops - the average daily difference can be 20-25 degrees!
In principle, in principle, the most sharp cooling in the world was recorded in Browning (Montana, USA), when the temperature in January 1916 fell there with +6.7 to -48.8 ° C.
For the championship at the lowest temperature with the village of Oymyakon, the city of Verkhoyansk is fighting (the population is a little over a thousand people), which is also in Yakutia. Here is the officially registered minimum -67.8 ° C (recorded on January 15, 1885). And although officially the status of the "Pole of the Cold" today was given to Verojansk, the disputes continue to be conducted. A number of meteorological scientists indicate the advantage of the Oymyakon in the battle for the "Frosty Championship of the Northern Hemisphere".
Verdict - deadly!
As for the coldest place on Earth, Antarctica is considered to them. On July 21, 1983, the air temperature of -89.2 degrees was recorded at this continent at the East station. By the way, the average annual temperature in Antarctica is -60.2.
However, in 2004, a number of sources published a sensational news - on August 3 in the area of the Japanese Antarctic Station "Dome Fuji" registered a new World Temperature Record, which was -91.2 ° C. And although this data is contested today, scientists noted that they are quite believable. First of all, because the station is 600 meters above sea level than the East. Meteorologists believe that the temperature here can fall up to -100 degrees and below. Just think: already at -78.5 ° C, carbon dioxide turns into dry ice. A person dies with such a cold in a matter of minutes - frost burns lungs, larynx, eyes, mucous.
Even bacteria will not survive
However, the heat is no better. In the most arid place of the planet - the desert of the Cheap-Lut in the east of Iran do not even live bacteria! It is in this place that the absolute temperature thermal record is recorded +71 ° C. Such an indicator here was able to register twice - in 2004 and in 2005. True, scientists after refuted the data, assuring that the measurements were made with errors.
The official maximum temperature is considered to be an indicator of 56.7 ° C, which 10 July 1913 recorded meteorologists in the valley of the death of California in America. The middle summer temperature here is +47 degrees.
In Russia, the absolute maximum temperature of the air (+45.4 ° C) registered in Kalmykia on July 12, 2010.
Distinguished July 2010 and in Moscow - 29 numbers the air temperature here was warmed up to +38.2 ° C. Having established an absolute record for all the time of observations and beats the previous one from August 7, 1920 (+36.8 ° C).
In St. Petersburg, the highest temperature marked for the entire observation period was also fixed in 2010. On August 7, the thermometers were shown in the northern capital +37.1 ° C.
By the way, and 2016 the other day meteorologists called one of the warmest in the city on the Neva. Main weather forecaster Hydrometeorological center Alexander Wheel Reported that the average annual temperature was in the past year at +6.5 ° C, and this is the 12th value in a number of the warmest years. However, this is few noticed - precipitation, which fell in 2016, became maximum for the entire observation. So, warm weather was pretty retained by Petersburg rains.Events
Scientists opened The coldest place on earth - In Antarctica, where the temperature drops below -91 degrees Celsius. It is located on the Antarctic Mountain Ridge.
Opening was done by American researchers National Center for Snow and Ice Data Center With the help of satellites and other temperature measurement methods in Antarctica.
Place where the temperature reaches -91.2 degrees Celsius , located in the mountain Dome Fuji, The height of which reaches 3.7 km.
With this temperature, the eye, nose and light man freeze in minutes. This is because the temperature of 13 degrees is below the point (-78.5 degrees Celsius), in which carbon dioxide turns out of gas into dry ice.
The coldest temperature on Earth
While the lowest air temperature record on Earth -89.2 degree Celsius Was recorded in the winter of 1983 at the East Research Station, also in Antarctica.
See also: The coldest places on the planet
However, researchers argue that there are probably even colder places, as satellites averaged the temperature per square kilometer. They also emphasized that the lowest temperatures were fixed during clear dry periods.
Ku пOl Fuji or Valkyrie Dome in Antarctica is the second highest peak and one of the coldest places on the ground on average. Temperature here is almost never does not rise above -30 degrees Celsius even in the summer .
The coldest places
However, the head Russian Antarctic Expedition Vyacheslav Martyanov declares that Early talk about the record of temperature based on the satellite data . Satellite tools AVHRR and MODIS Measure the so-called "brightness temperature", which does not fully correlate with true meteorological conditions, and must be confirmed by observations on land.
In addition, the Russian scientist believes that the 30-year-old record of the lowest temperature can beat Station "Kunlun" , open by Chinese scientists in 2009.
It is located in the highest region of Antarctica - "Dome of Argus". In winter, this place remains unanimous, but if there was a meteorological station, then it was possible there to register the temperature lower than at the East station.
The station was opened on February 2, 2009, after the Chinese Antarctic Expedition passed 1200 km from the sea to Sushi, coming to the most difficult area located at an altitude of 4,093 m above sea level. This is 600 meters above the East station, and scientists believe that the temperature here can fall to -102 degrees Celsius.
Early this year, the Russian village of Oymyakon became the coldest constantly in the population on earth where the average temperature in January reaches -50 degrees Celsius.
The lowest temperature on this so-called "Cold Pole" reached -71.2 degrees Celsius. A little more than 500 people live in Oymyakne.
Cold winter for everyone is different. Someone calls cold temperatures below 25 degrees, and someone and in -5 already hits a warm scarf and dreams of early spring offensive. Our selection is not about it! We collected the coldest places on the planet, where the air temperature drops to -90 ° C and, agree, it is definitely very cold. Well, make hot tea - we start.
The name of the country speaks for itself - extensive ice cover, especially in the harsh winters, turns Iceland to the real Ice kingdom. It does not allow to finally climb this region only the North Atlantic flow, which brings with her warm cyclones and precipitation. In winter, there is an average temperature of about -10 ° C, but in the northern part of the country, the thermometer is often descended to -30 ° C. The lowest indicators boast the town of Grimsstadir in the north-east of the country - in 1918, local meteorologists recorded here -38 ° C.
Sweden, unlike Finland and Norway, does not often experience extremely low temperatures. Probably, on the one hand, Finland defends it from strong winds, and on the other - Norway. Nevertheless, in the northern regions of Sweden there are still frosts, and the air temperature goes to -40 ° C. . In the middle and southern parts of the country, the winter weather is much more comfortable - just about -5 ° C / -10 ° C.
In this Scandinavian country in winter, harsh weather conditions also prevail. Thanks to its location, Finland is located in the so-called boreal zone, where snow winters and short, but warm summer are celebrated. Almost throughout the country, winter lasts about 100 days (4 months) and only in the only region - in Lapland - the cold continues more than 200 days, and the snow does not melt from mid-October to May. During the coldest days, the temperature in Lapland can be descended to -45 ° C. - So low, the column of the thermometer in the city of Rovaniemi lowered. At the same time in the northern part of Finland for 51 days in winter, the sun is also not observed. It remains only to guess how so weathering was adapted to so weather conditions.
In Norway, a more moderate climate due to the north-defense flow, but also this territory did not bypass severe frosts. The lowest temperature in the country was registered in 1999 - in the northeastern town Karashok, the thermometer column dropped to record -51.2 ° C. . Although, according to local residents, according to unofficial data, the weather was much colder that year.
Kazakhstan, located at the junction of Asia and Europe, is also included in the list of countries with the most severe winters. From December to February, cold weather reigns here and the temperature is held at -30 ° C / -35 ° C, But there were cases when the thermometer column fell to -57 ° C. (Such data were obtained by the atbasar meteorological service). But it is worth noting that in Kazakhstan there is a sharply continental climate, so along with strong frosts in the country there are traditionally hot summer months (+ 30 ° C / + 32 ° C).
5. United States
The United States of America is located on a huge area that stretches from the northern part of the hemisphere closer to the equator: because of this, the climate in the north of the country is incredibly severe, and in the southern regions is always very hot. The lowest temperature was registered on January 23, 1971 at the airport of Creek Prospect, which is located in Alaska - Frost reached -62.2 ° C. . Also cold winters with strong snowfall are famous for other states of the country, for example, Idaho or Colorado.
Canada boasts the same climate as the United States of America. But because of the more northern location of the winter country in Canada is always a little colder. The situation is aggravated by strong gusty winds - frosts seem more severe. The coldest winter here was marked here in 1947, when the temperature on the board of Yukon reached record low -63,0 ° C. .
Our country has long been famous for low temperatures. There are many open spaces in Russia, which is why in most northern regions is very windy and frosty, especially during the winter months. The coldest weather was recorded in the Yakut city of Verkhoyansk in 1885 - the thermometer readings dropped to -67.8 ° C. . Measures conducted a revolutionary population Sergey Kovalik. Interestingly, the temperature of the zero of degrees has never been registered in this city from the end of October to mid-March - such a long winter here. Because of such harsh weather, Verkhoyansk has long been called the "Pole of Cold", but in spite of this about 1000 people live here, which are already accustomed to extreme frosts.
For Europeans, Greenland is considered the extreme north and royal eternal winter, perhaps because low temperatures are often recorded here. Record indicators were established in 1991: automatic meteorological station fixed -69.6 ° C. . Representatives of the World Meteorological Organization then called this temperature the coldest for the northern hemisphere in the entire history of scientific observations of weather and climate.
This continent is considered to be the coldest on the planet. The average temperature in the winter months here fluctuates at -60 / -75 degrees, and in 2010 and at all reached record -93.2 ° C. Such indicators have recorded research from the United States when analyzing satellite measurements. In addition, strong winds constantly blow on the continent at a speed of up to 300 km / h. Because of such a harsh climate in Antarctica, there is no permanent population, and only from time to time to the continent, replacing each other, scientists arrive, which are placed on specially equipped research stations. In total, about 1-3 thousand specialists are underway on the mainland annually.
Write in the comments, did you manage to feel strong frosts? What temperature was at that moment?
Even more interesting: Why in the most bodied frost cheeks are murred, and there is no eyes
Photo: Depositphotos.com, SchultzPhoto.com
In winter, 2020 has become sufficiently warm in the central part of Russia, so many residents have frightened in the snow. But as soon as the values on the thermometer barely roll over -20 degrees, it seems that at such a temperature it is impossible to live.
At such days, the thoughts of hot summer, the sun and palm trees are climbing. But in the world there are places in which it is much colder that even to imagine such values is difficult to the usual one.
We bring to your attention a rating of 10 records of record holders on Earth, where the lowest temperature was recorded in the entire history of observations. 10. Pass Charlotte, Australia, -23 ° С
No matter how strange it is for residents of the central region, but the hottest time in Australia is January, and the coldest is summer. At the Charlotte Pass on June 29, 1994, the lowest air temperature in Australia -23 ° C was recorded.
This mountain pass is located in the snowy mountains in the state of New South Wales and has a height of about 1755 meters above sea level. However, this place is known to many lovers of winter sports, as there is a very well-known ski resort and settlement nearby.
Pass and the same village received their name in honor of the first woman from Europe, who was able to rise to Mount Kostyushko - Charlotte Adams in 1881.
9. IFRAN, MORROKO, -23,9 ° C
The population of this city is now barely exceeds 14 thousand people. It is the ski resort that is called Mishlifen, as the city of Ifran is at an altitude of about 1635 meters above sea level. It was in this place that the lowest temperature throughout the territory of Africa was recorded - almost 24 ° C.
However, such indicators are only an exception to the rule. Often the temperature in winter does not exceed 0 ° C. What is interesting, then from January to March here very often drops a large number of snow.
Outwardly, the ski resort resembles the Alps in Switzerland, so there is such a name for Tourists - "Moroccan Switzerland" in the use of tourists.
8. Ranferli, New Zealand, -25.6 ° С
Ranferlie is a city in the Central District of Otago, located on the plain, about 430 meters above sea level. The city specializes in servicing the local farm society.
Oceanic climate prevails on the territory of Ranferli, so there are very high seasonal and daily temperature differences. On July 18, 1903, the lowest temperature in New Zealand was registered in this city - this is -25.6 ° C at a time when the average temperature in the winter ranges from -5 ° C to + 7 ° C.
As noted, in 1903 the island enveloped the harsh winter, which brought a large number of frosts.
7. Valle de Los Patos-Superior, Argentina, -39 ° С
Río de Los Patos is a river located in Argentina and flowing close to Kalignastata and Southwest locality in San Juan province. Dry summer continental climate prevails on this territory.
It was on the Valle de Los Patos Superior on July 17, 1972, the lowest temperature of South and Latin America was registered since the existence of -39 ° C at the average daily temperatures, fluctuating around from -3 ° C to -5 ° C.
It is worth noting that these indicators were removed at an altitude of about 2880 meters above sea level, which is quite large height.
6. Ust-Shugger, Russia, -58.1 ° C
Ust-Shugger is a small village with a population of 27 people, located in the east of the Republic of Komi, where the Schugol and Pechora rivers are merged. Located only 75 meters above sea level. The settlement is not in vain wearing the name "The coldest place of Europe and the Eastern European Plain." On the eve of the New Year, on December 31, 1978, the lowest temperature of -58.1 ° C was recorded on the meteorological station of the Kara Sea.
It is worth noting that the village of Ust-Shugger distinguished itself in other winter months at the lowest temperature. In 1914, the lowest indicators of March (-50.8 ° C) were recorded here, in 1917 - November (-48.8 ° C), and in January 1973 (-56.9 ° C).
5. NATITA, GRENDANDA, -66.1 ° C
NATITA is an old polar research station, which was used during the British Severophery Expedition, held from 1952 to 1954.
North Ice is located on the Greenland Ice Shield, which takes almost the entire area of Greenland Island. Location height - 2345 meters above sea level. The thickness of the ice of this big boulder varies from 1.5 to 3 kilometers
While there, the freight forwarders recorded on January 9, 1954 the lowest temperature in North America - -66.1 ° C.
4. Verkhoyansk, Russia, -67.7 ° C
Verkhoyansk is a city located on the very north of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia). At the time of the census of 2018, the number of residents of the city reached 1122 people. Verkhoyansk is one of the smallest settlements with the official status of the city.
This city is not only one of the northernmost cities of Russia, but also the coldest place on earth. On February 5, 1892, the lowest temperature was recorded here, thereby deserved the title of "Polyus Cold of Northern Hemisphere". Earlier, on January 15, 1885, the temperature was fixed (at that time) temperature equal to -67.1 ° C.
Verkhoyansk is a city with the biggest difference between the minimum and maximum temperatures. In 2005, a memorial was discovered in the settlement even a memorial associated with the 120th anniversary (since 1885) of registration of the very minimum temperature in the northern hemisphere.
3. Oymyakon, Russia, -71,2 ° С
Another Russian settlement competing with Verkhoyansky for the title "Pole of the Northern Hemisphere Cold". Settlement in the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) at an altitude of 741 meters above sea level.
For a number of some factors, the Oymyakan Valley is the most severe place where the permanent population can live. However, every year accommodation is fixed a little less than 1000 people.
On February 6, 1933, in this village, the lowest temperature in the northern hemisphere was recorded - this is -67.7 ° C. However, in 1926, in one of his diaries, the geologist S. V. Obruchev recorded that in the village of Oymyakon, the temperature of -71.2 ° C was recorded, next to the black ridge.
But since this information did not affect the documented, officially adopted for the truth, it cannot be.
2. Station East, Antarctica, -89.2 ° С
East is the Russian Arctic station, founded on December 16, 1957 and at an altitude of 3488 meters above sea level. The ice thickness located under the station is about 3, 700 km.
Climatic conditions in the area can be called one of the greatest on Earth. For a whole year, the strongest frosts are observed. On July 21, 1983, the lowest temperature on the planet from all meteorological stations of the 20th century - -89.2 ° C was recorded on the territory of the station. The highest temperature station is considered -13.6 ° C of December 16, 1957.
Because of the high height above sea level, there is a sharp lack of oxygen, and due to the low temperature, the pressure with each meter drops more and more.
1. Station Dome Fuji, Antarctica, -91,2 ° С
Dome Fuji - Japanese Antarctic station, located on the top of the ice shield. The height is 3810 meters above sea level, and this is the second point in the East Antarctic Ice Shield.
Due to the location on the Antarctic plateau and high altitude above sea level, the temperatures at the station are always very low. In the summer, the thermometer is rare when it shows the number above -30 ° C.
On August 3, 2004, at this point the most minimum temperature on the entire planet Earth -91.2 ° C was installed. However, only on December 8, 2013 reported. But this data is impossible to be fully reliable, since the measurements were produced on the basis of satellite monitoring of the brightness temperature, where accuracy was not detected for sure.©